II.i.10

A large garden area extended across the rear of this house (to the south). A cistern opening was located in the rear wall of the house and a basin built against the west wall had an irrigation channel to the garden. Another water basin was located near the east wall. Additional water was admitted t...

II.ii.2 (House of D. Octavius Quartio)

A. The spacious Tuscan atrium of this luxurious house excavated in 1918-1921 was a lavish garden. A low, double masonry wall, faced with marble on the outside, bordered the impluvium and according to Spinazzola, the space between the walls had been lined with wood to form a planting box for flowers...

II.i.12 (House of the Birii; House of the Sibyl)

The worship of the Thracian-Phrygian vegetation god, Sabazius, took place in this large peristyle garden which was entered through a wide vestibule from the street. Crude paintings of Venus, Mercury, Bacchus, and Priapus with their accompanying symbols were located high on the sides of the entrance...

II.i.7A/11

A. (Entrance 7A) A square garden area was tucked behind two rooms. The beginnings of an arc-shaped structure in the northeast corner could have been the beginning of an additional cistern according to Dr. De Caro. The soil was badly damaged and Jashemski could not determine the planting patterns, a...

Test garden

Maps Plans Images Dates Bibliography Periodo ID Pleiades ID TGN ID Contributor Publication date Related articles ...

II.i.7B/8-9

A. The access to this garden featured an arched niche high on the garden wall located either side of the direct entrance from the street at entrance 8. A further entrance (7A) from the street was located on the east wall. The masonry triclinium (l. medius, 3.60 m.; l. imus 3.20 l. summus 2.43 m.) i...

II.i.2 (House of Aemilius Primio and Aemiluis Saturninus)

Behind the shop, living quarters were located, including a garden to the rear. The west garden wall was topped with the broken amphorae]; this wall was shared with the rear open area in I.i.1. Bibliography W. F. Jashemski, 1993, Gardens of Pompeii: Herculaneum and the villas destroyed by Vesuvius. ...

II.i.3-7

The garden in the southeast section of this area was shared the house at entrance 3 and shops 4, 5, and 6 on the Via dell’Abbondanza. It was also possible to enter the garden from the side street at entrance 7. Jashemski established in 1975 that the area had been planted due to the presence of scat...

Garden beneath the House of the Fishes (Domus dei Pesci)

In the course of recent excavations in a room (a) of this house a probable garden area was uncovered (Fig. 1). Only its southern limits, represented by the perimeter wall of an otherwise unidentified building, could be traced. The archaeological sequence established by the stratigraphy of this gard...

Garden Houses (Case a Giardino)

The area in which these houses are situated was laid out as a residential area in c.128 AD as part of the Hadrianic remodeling of Ostia (Fig. 1). It is delimited by buildings of various depths, due to the irregularity of the available space. The central area is occupied by two blocks each comprisin...

House of Amor and Psyche

The entrance of this house (Fig. 1) (which takes its name from the statuary group found in room b) provides access to a large portico (a) with four columns on marble bases, resting on a continuous marble-paneled balustrade 50 cm high. To the right of the portico was an area believed to be a garden ...

House of the Bucrania

In the summer 2002 part of the hortus of the Domus with peristyle was excavated (in the west corner) (Fig. 1, d). At 80 cm under the present sea level, part of the garden of a Late Republican domus (called Domus with Bucrania) was revealed. The domus was built about 80-60 BC and destroyed about 20-...

House of the Fortuna Annonaria

The peristyle garden (Fig. 1, a) has travertine columns on three sides. The fourth side coincides with the perimeter wall of the house, which forms part of the original plan, dating to the 2nd century AD. The last phase of the domus, lavishly decorated with precious marbles, dates to the 4th centur...

House of the Thunderbold (Domus Fulminata)

The peristyle garden, excavated in 1941, was surrounded by a portico on all four sides, supported by brick columns, some of which were paired or clustered in threes (Fig. 1). In the original building, dating to the Flavian period, the garden (a) was furnished with a brick biclinium, with the klinai...

House on Via del Tempio Rotundo

This house was only partially excavated between June 1972 and January 1973 (Fig. 1). In its Augustan phase the peristyle garden (a) was adorned with a large central basin paved in opus signinum. At the center of the basin was a brick support, interpreted as the base of a fountain. The columns of th...

House with Peristyle

During the winter 1938-1939 part of an earlier building was found under the occupation level of the Schola of the Trajan. It was called House with peristyle, as the main preserved feature was seen to be the considerable part of a classical peristyle (Fig. 1, b). The house was erected between 20-40 ...

Piazzale della Corporazioni

In the original plan of the Augustan period the garden area to the back of the theater was surrounded on three sides by a roofed corridor opening onto the Tiber on the northern side with a monumental entrance. In the Claudian period the whole level of the area was raised and a portico consisting of...

Schola of Trajan

The monumental complex of the Schola of the Trajan, presumed headquarters of the corporation of the marine carpenters, was built c.160-200 and abandoned after the 4th century CE. It was excavated and restored during the winter of 1938-1939. It includes a vast internal courtyard, which is oblong and...

Insula dei Dipinti

The large open area in this insula, divided into two by a wall, was identified as a garden at the time of excavation (1914 to 1919), but on little evidence apart from the absence of paving over most of the area. Recent excavations have however clarified the phases of the garden and added some signi...

Antinous' tomb (Fig. 1, n. 25)

When, after having asked Dr. Reggiani to write about the garden emerged by her excavations, I began to study the map she kindly sent me (Fig. 75). Mari had informed me that the big structure beside the entrance gate was a Nymphaeum, but this seemed to me really improbable: It was too big and not in...

Garden arrangement under the Libraries' terrace (Fig. 1, n. 9)

The principal element of this garden (Fig. 28) is the sustaining wall of the overhanging terrace, a kind of theater scenery decorated by a series of 23 alternatively semicircular and square niches (Fig. 29). However the garden did not occupy the entire plateau. A substantial concentration of lead i...

Garden in the Palace Summer part (Fig. 1, n. 14)

Quite certainly there was a garden here, but we don’t have any elements to help us to reconstruct its appearance (Fig. 36). Only a trench was by me excavated in the western part of the courtyard, just in front of the Hadrianic stibadium used in summer for open-air dining (Fig.37). I wanted to...

Garden of the triclinium North of the Maritime Theatre (Fig. 1, n. 7)

Today what is left of this garden is a nymphaeum 7 m long and 3.50 m large. It was set against a wall on its northern side and served as a background to the area. It consisted of a small, marble lined fountain, with a basin at its front and five square niches set on a semieliptic line at its back (...

Garden on a terrace (Fig. 1, n. 15)

This garden was placed to the east of the Palace and, looking the Valley of Tempe, was sustained by a huge wall (Fig. 1, 15). Now nothing of it is left, but in ancient times a long portico ran all along the eastern side of the terrace. For what is written in Contini’s notes, in 1658 many colu...

Palace nymphaeum (Fig. 1, n. 16)

The Palace nymphaeum (LUGLI 1927) has already been published quite extensively in the proceedings of the last symposium on ancient Roman Gardens held in Rome in 1995 (JASHEMSKI, SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1987-88, pp. 151-154, figs. 6-8; SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1998, pp. 385-388, figs. 15-16; SALZA PRINA RICO...

Terraced garden of the Libraries (Fig. 1, n. 8)

This terrace, leaning to the North on a sustaining wall, is the first one of a series of very interesting overhanging gardens developing on successive sloping down terraces (Fig. 25). Up to now no flowerbeds have been discovered. Today we can only admire the very long euripus (Fig. 26), which was t...

The area under the Temple of the Venus of Cnidus (Fig. 1, n. 12)

Here also the presence of a garden is only denounced by the high content of lead in the soil (SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1994-95, fig. 7) and by the decorative setting, which is offered by the towering arches of the Venus of Cnidus' sustaining wall (Fig. 34). Then there is a large nymphaeum with a swimmin...

The Belvedere of the Venus of Cnidus (Fig. 1, n. 11)

This Belvedere is not really a garden. The area is all paved with luxurious opus sectile, and, therefore, there were no flowerbeds, but in every important park, beside bushes and blooming plants, there are always some elegant pavilions and exedras where one could pause and take a rest reading a boo...

The Canopus gardens (Fig. 1, n. 2)

The Canopus (Fig. 2 and 3) is perhaps the most important of all Villa Adriana’s gardens (JASHEMSKI, SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1987-88, pp. 152-162, fig. 11-15; JASHEMSKI, SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1992, pp. 579-585, tavv. I-IV; SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1998, pp. 374-383, fig. 9-13; SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 2000, p...

The garden in front of the Piazza d'Oro (Fig. 1, n. 19)

Here only the considerable presence of lead in the soil denounces the existence of an ancient garden (SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1994-95, fig. 7). It is clear that this space, which was the point of arrival of the most important guests coming to dine with the emperor, must have been elegantly arranged. At...

The Garden of the Piazza d'Oro (Fig. 1, n. 20)

The garden of the Piazza d’Oro is one of the most prestigious and interesting of Villa Adriana. It consists of a peristyle garden set amid a double portico and surrounded by some of the most elegant buildings of this imperial residence (Figg. 54 and 55). The garden, which occupies the central...

The garden of the tomb (Fig. 1, n. 21)

We always find open spaces around the more important tombs and we know that they were kept as gardens. Just last summer Prof. Foss analyzed the samples drawn from the enclosure of the tomb of Romulus, Massenzio’s son, on the Appian way, and found a large quantity of lead in it, lead that was ...

The gardens at the entrance of Hadrian's villa (Fig. 1, n. 3)

The Great Entrance Hall of Hadrian’s villa (Fig. 9) presents three gardens, two of which (Fig. 9, A and G) are peristyle ones. a – The main gate to the Hadrianic residence opens up on a peristyle garden, the largest one. Having just been excavated by Dr. Anna Maria Reggiani, the Latium’...

The Libraries' Courtyard (Fig. 1, n. 13)

This garden belongs to the republican period and it is one of the most ancient of Villa Adriana. It is enclosed in a large peristyle 48 m wide, 72 m long. The place seems to have been watered from the Republican time up to the end of the Roman Empire, and the content of lead in its soil is among th...

The Pecile (Fig. 1, n. 6)

The Pecile (Fig. 20) was never excavated as a garden. Thus, today, we have only the large pond, 30 m wide x 116 m long (Fig. 21) which hosts a flock of white geese (Fig. 20, A). A garden must have been spread all around it, but its flowerbeds need still to be investigated (SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 2000,...

The so-called Inferi Nymphaeum (Fig. 1, n. 23)

The so-called Inferi (Figg. 68 and 69) is a garden arrangement placed a little South of the tomb and closely connected with the building called the “Temple of Pluto” set just East of it. This peculiar landscaping arrangement was created excavating a narrow artificial valley in the slopes of the gro...

The so-called Throne Hall garden (Fig. 1, n. 17)

The so-called “Throne Hall” (MACDONALD, PINTO 1995, pp. 78-81), was not a throne hall at all (Fig. 46). It was a garden (JASHEMSKI, SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1987-88, pp. 154-156, figs. 9-10; SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1998, p. 366, fig. 2; SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 2000, pp. 325-330, figs. 111-113). A probe (Fig. 46...

The Stadium-garden (Fig. 1, n. 4)

Already widely documented, published and discussed, it was surveyed, excavated and reconstructed by A. Hoffman (HOFFMAN 1980). His book is an outstanding and very important work but we can’t accept all of his hypotheses, and namely we can’t believe the existence of an impossible central...

The terrace on the valley of Tempe (Fig. 1, n. 10)

This terrace offers a splendid view of Tivoli and its mountains (Fig. 30). The concentration of lead in its soil shows that it was kept as a cultivated area (SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1994-95, fig. 7). Today we don’t have enough elements to understand its landscaping, but we must consider that the ...

Building of the Three Basins (Edifice of trois bassins)

This building, located to the NW of the Winter Baths, was comprised of three articulated sectors, the SE area, the NW area, and the area to the N of the NW area. The SE area was laid out around an incomplete peristyle with seven columns along the NW and SW sides (Plan view, Fig. 1). Three semicircu...

Suburban Villa

This villa suburbana in the modern Parc de la Grange lay outside the town on the southern shore of Lake Geneva. The villa, built originally in the mid 1st c. A.D., was extended in the 2nd and 3rd c., and was inhabited until the 4th c. (Fig. 8.2). It measured 40 x 30.50 m., and it had a separate bat...

Tomb garden of an anonymous

Three fragments of a large funerary inscription found in the seventeenth century near a church at Briord (in the territory of the Ambarri) record part of the text establishing a foundation for the observance of annual rites at a tomb site ([ad Pa]rentalia celebranda…haec omnia annua fierent) from t...

Tomb garden of Publicius Calistus

A funerary monument found near Die and now on the terrace of the courthouse there records an epitaph of (probably) the second or third century consecrated (consecratum) by Publicius Calistus for himself, his wives, and his children and attaching to the tomb two thirds of an arepennis (a Gallic meas...

Urban House

This badly preserved building situated on the Plateau des Tranchées was on a terraced slope overlooking Lake Geneva (Lacus Lemanus). Originally built between 20 and 40 A.D., and occupied until 180, the house had a central peristyle courtyard measuring 7.80 x 22 m. in size. Below the peristyle was a...

House of the Masks (Maison aux Masques)

The two known wings of the house were organized around a peristyle (8x 12 m), probably in a U, though the west wall has not been found but has been drawn on the accompanying plan by extension of wall further south. Two of the three galleries were open. The open area of the peristyle court was ornam...

Rural Villa

This villa rustica was built on the slope of a hill about 30 kilometers north of Colonia Augusta Treverorum, close to the Roman road from Trier to Cologne, now B 51/E29. It is a kilometer or two south of the village of Fliessem. The original core of the villa is of second century date, but the buil...

Rural Villa

The villa of this rural estate of the third century and its grounds are the only parts of the complex which have been investigated (Fig. 1). The farm lay about 40 km. south of Trier on a gentle slope above the Moselle river. The villa is of the winged corridor type with a facade of over 45 meters i...

Rural Villa

The house stood in the middle of a farm complex 75 meters wide and 120 meters long. It dates to the early second century. The house (A on the plan, Fig. 1) is of the winged corridor type, measuring 19.30 x 22.40 meters. On the west and east, in front of and behind the house, were open courtyards en...

Rural Villa

This palatial villa, which has been interpreted as an imperial summer palace, lay within the confines of an imperial domain about 12 km. northwest of Colonia Augusta Treverorum. It was built during the reign of the emperor Valentinian I (364-375) or Gratian (367-383) who resided in the capital. Ver...

Rural Villa

The enclosed farm compound measured 79 x 125/132 meters (less than one hectare). In the middle of the yard stood a house (A on plan) of the winged corridor type dating to the period between the end of the 1st and the later fourth century. (Fig. 1) Southeast of the house was an open area of 900 squa...

Villa des Tuillières

The villa des Tuillières near Selongey was on a Roman road connecting Lyon and Trier. The villa was detected by aerial photography in 1973 and almost completely excavated by the private Association Archéologique de Fontaine-Française in advance of the construction of the motorway A 26/31 Langres – ...

House of Grotto of catullus

Sirmio is known from a citation in Catullus’ XXXI° poem (paene insularum, Sirmio, insularumque ocelle …) and in later road itineraries as a staging post (Sermione mansio) along the road between Verona and Brixia (Brescia), which passed to the south of the peninsula, forming part of the errit...

Tomb garden of A. Coelius C. f.

A broken marble slab immured in the cathedral at Padua since the seventeenth century records the epitaph of A. Coelius C. f., who some time in the first or second century dedicated to the divine spirits (Dis Manibus) and to himself in perpetuity a garden that had once, it seems, belonged to an Ariu...

Tomb garden of A. Coelius C. f.

A broken marble slab immured in the cathedral at Padua since the seventeenth century records the epitaph of A. Coelius C. f., who some time in the first or second century dedicated to the divine spirits (Dis Manibus) and to himself in perpetuity a garden that had once, it seems, belonged to an Ariu...

Tomb Garden of L. Ogius Patroclus

A marble slab reported at Altinum in the sixteenth century and now in Venice records, above a depiction of an axe, a plumb-line, and a tree with birds, the epitaph of L. Ogius Patroclus, who some time (probably) in the late first or second century, “following the tradition of dutiful respect mainta...

Tomb garden of T. Vettius Hermes

A marble stele now in a church at Grazzano records the epitaph of T. Vettius Hermes, a freedman ointment dealer (seplasiarius). After a gnomic sentiment about chthonic birthand reunion (mater genuit materq(ue) recepiit), Hermes goes on to declare that “these gardens, as great and excellent as they ...

Villa at Luna

The coastal villa was located at the east end of the Gulf of La Spezia and controlled a large fundus. Little is known of the first nucleus of the villa, dated to 120-100 B.C. The layout that has survived dates to the second phase (80-50 B.C.). The excavated portion of the pars urbana is to the nort...

Villa at Pola"

This large maritime villa consisted of two parts, labeled “summer villa” and “winter villa”. The “summer” quarters unfold around a U-shaped peristyle, open on the sea-side, with central garden measuring 31.8 x 26.2 m. (fig. 2: 4). No traces of a pool or fountain were found in the center of the gard...

Villa of the Bath

Remains discovered in 1888 revealed a large semicircular garden (Fig. 1: c) enclosed by a portico (b), into which opened a series of rooms (d to p). A corridor (a) connected this garden to a bath quarter that boasted a nymphaeum (t) and a panoramic view onto the sea. A similar semicircular portico ...

Villa of the Statue (I.iii.23)

A villa dating from the first century B.C. to at least the time of Marcus Aurelius was discovered near the modern via Miramare in Barcola. It overlooked the sea to the west and had a portico at the south (Fig. 1: B), with rooms opening onto it. The main nucleus of the villa unfolded around a rectan...

Casa del Larario Fiorito (II.ix.4)

Excavated in the later 1980s, (Fig. 76) this property features a garden, described by Ciarallo as “laid out in eight ground strips bordered by furrows.” She interprets this layout as a plant nursery, also taking into account that the root cavities throughout were small, 4-8 c. in diameter, with two...

Casa del Larario Fiorito (II.ix.4.A)

A. To the west of the Great Palaestra there was a large garden (a) which was partially excavated in 1954-1956. A low masonry wall with planting spaces in the top enclosed an elaborate masonry triclinium (l. medius, 4.45 m.; l. imus 4.20; l. summus 3.55 m.) with a table 0.65 x 0.75 m.) on the south,...

Caupona with Small Bath

A. A very small bath was located at the left rear of the atrium in this unusual building. Behind this was a tiny garden (a) with three small triclinia on either side. The couches of these six triclinia were so low and narrow they must have been used as seats similar to the taberna attached to the h...

II.ix.6.B

B. This vineyard section of the property was excavated in 1984 by Dr. De Caro. A small peristyle garden (b) was enclosed on the east and south by a three column portico with a pilaster on the southwest corner. A low wall joined the pilaster and the west column on the south side with a terra-cotta p...

II.viii.1

Jashemski examined this sizable garden (a) to the rear of this house in 1957 and concluded that the pronounced north-south furrows bordered by water channels indicated that this was most likely a vegetable garden. Plans Fig. 62, Plan of Region II, insula viii Pleiades ID 456321707 TGN ID 700465...

II.viii.2-3

B. Another small garden (b) was found to the rear of the caupona. Plans Fig. 62, Plan of Region II, insula viii Pleiades ID 456321707 TGN ID 7004658 Dates Unspecified Bibliography Jashemski, Gardens, vol.II, p.94 (worldcat) Contributor Wilhelmina Jashemski (https://lib.guides.umd.edu/c.php?g=...

II.viii.2-3

Customers at this thermopolium were served at a counter at the street and at the masonry triclinium (l. medius, 3.60 m.; l. imus 2.85; l. summus 2.30 m.) in the rear garden. This was located against the north wall to the front of this long, narrow garden and had a round table (0.50 m. in dia.) betw...

II.viii.6

A large aedicula lararium on the east wall and a large triclinium (l. medius, 4.40 m.; l. imus 4.00; l. summus 3.80 m.; table between couches 1.00 x 1.67m.) were found in the large area attached to this humble house when excavation was started in 1953-1954. Human remains were uncovered with five go...

Park Area Adjacent to the Great Palaestra and the Amphitheater

Park-like areas were located between the Great Palaestra and the Amphitheater and to the north. Here booths were set up under trees or awnings and a carnival atmosphere existed as depicted in a painting (Mus. Naz. inv. no. 112 222) found in the peristyle of house I.iii. 23. Two huge root cavities w...

The Great Palaestra; Campus

Colonnaded porticoes encircled the palaestra on the south, west and north and a large swimming pool (34.55 x 22.25 m.) was located in the center. Casts made of tree cavities planted eight meters apart in two rows around the north, west and south sides of the enclosed area indicated that these were ...

House of the Arsenal (Maison de l’Arsenal)

A large house (40 x 40 m) of the second century covered the site of three adjacent buildings going back to the years 60-80 (Fig 1). It was built around a central courtyard [1] 18 meters on a side, bordered by porticos on the east, south, and west. The courtyard, doubtless treated as a garden, had a...

House of the Arsenal (Maison de l’Arsenal)

The site is on the Lorraine plateau, which has been densely occupied and cultivated since protohistoric times. The villa was on the divide between the headwaters of the Seille on the west and the Neid on the east and only 2.3 kilometers from the Roman road connecting Metz, Sarrebourg, and Strasbour...

House on the Place des Halles (La maison des Halles)

LUG 6.1.1: Le Mans. House on the Place des Halles. From CAG. This domus was on the Place des Halles, the former site of the covered market place. It was excavated in 1987-88 south of the principal street. In a part of the ancient city inhabited since the first century, the house occupied a surface ...

House on the rue de la Harpe ( *Domus* rue de la Harpe)

Excavations of a 1400 square meter site in 1989 at 45 rue de la Harpe partially uncovered five habitations of the southern quarter of the city. They were occupied between the first and third century until a final destruction around 275 – 280. Among them, one had a peristyle [1] of which three porti...

House with Garden, rue des Capucins

A salvage excavation by F. Berthelot in 1987 revealed part of this poorly preserved house covering some 800 square meters in downtown Reims, about 300 meters from the right bank of the Vesle. (Fig 1) It is near an ancient street which is known for a ten meter stretch. The site was occupied in Julio...

La Villa des Rouaux

The villa des Rouaux runs along the south side of most of the village of Peltre, which is five kilometers southeast of of Metz. The historical and archaeological context is that of the periphery of Divodurum, principal city of the Mediomatrici, where a dense fabric of Roman rural sites has been fou...

Richebourg (Yvelines) villa de

Though the site has an area of 12 or 13 hectares, only one hectare has been excavated, the residential and agricultural part. Two groups of buildings frame a large garden on a slightly trapezoidal, walled area. To the north was the residence; to the south, the utility buildings, including a silo; w...

Roman Villa

Following the fortuitous discovery of mosaics in 1820, the site of a large Roman villa was excavated from 1821 to 1830 by M. Solicoffre, then from 1840 to 1848 by P. J. Féret, and again in 1876 by Abbé Loth. The ruins were then abandoned, and our knowledge of them comes entirely from the very uneve...

Rural Villa

This villa of a farm near Echternach was of the winged corridor type with sumptuous interior marble paneling, mosaics and wall paintings (Fig. 1). Originally constructed in the 60s of the first century AD, the villa was enlarged until it covered an area of 8928 square meters in the third century. T...

Villa de Châtillon-sur-Seiche

Six kilometers south of Rennes, this village with medieval churches and pleasant promenades along the banks of the Seiche must once have been the site of castellum from which the name Châtillon derives. The fort was probably on a mound a few hundred meters southwest of the ancient farm and villa de...

Vaise - House with the Xenia

Xenia were gifts of game, fish, poultry, fruits or vegetables given by a host to a guest to be cooked to the guest’s liking. Here, the name comes from the discovery of a pinax (a painted ceramic tablet) showing xenia. This house was discovered during excavation of the southern sector of the Saint-P...

Funerary Chamber of Manlia Felicitas

In 1937 a French student, Louis Vignon, searching for new catacombs around the third mile of the Via Appia near the tomb of Caecilia Metella, discovered a subterranean funerary chamber accessible via a descending stair that ended at a landing which opened perpendicularly into the middle of one of i...

Monumental Tomb Garden Complex

Two conjoining fragments of a cut marble slab found in the cemetery of Centocelle at the third mile of the Via Labicana, now in the Palazzo Ducale in Urbino, show part of a plan (not drawn to scale) of a large rectangular funerary garden (546 x 524.5 Roman feet, almost exactly 10 iugera, about 5.8 ...

Temple Tomb Garden of Q. Haterius Tychicus

One of the well-known reliefs from the tomb monument of the Haterii found in 1848 at a villa site after the fourth mile of the Via Labicana and depicting the temple tomb they adorned seems to represent schematically a garden and ornamental pavilion (diaeta) enclosed by a perimeter wall or fence in ...

Tomb Garden of a Funerary Collegium

A marble slab found at the cemetery of Centocelle and now preserved in the National Museum in Stockholm records the establishment in 16 CE of a funerary garden and various appurtenances by two senior officials of a funerary collegium and the clearing of an area beyond a perimeter wall for the const...

Tomb Garden of Anonymous

A fragmentary marble slab found beside the Via Labicana near the cemetery of Centocelle and recording the end of an epitaph addressed in part to an Aurelius identifies a cepotaphium in the formulaic clause prohibiting misuse or alienation of the tomb property. Dates Unspecified Bibliography G.-L. ...

Tomb Garden of Aur(elius) Inachus

An inscription found beside the Via Appia near the tomb of Cecelia Metella in 1851 identifies a cepotaphium belonging to Aur(elius) Inachus, a freedman of one of the Antonine emperors (probably Commodus), who served as assistant to the messengers at the office of the emperor’s private accounts, and...

Tomb Garden of C. Nonius Minyas

An epitaph the late first or second century found near the intersection of the Via Ardeatina and the ancient road corresponding to the modern Via delle Sette Chiese identifies an estate or farm of Merops or Merope (horti or fundus Meropianus), perhaps the imperial freedman Ti. Claudius Merops, who ...

Tomb Garden of Claudia Semne

Four inscriptions unearthed in 1792 between the second and third mile of the Via Appia near S. Sebastiano identify the tomb garden complex of Claudia Semne, wife of M. Ulpius Crotonensis, a freedman of the emperor Trajan (CIL 6.15592-155495; ILS 8063c). According to the principal text (CIL 6.15593)...

Tomb Garden of M. Aurel(ius) Alexander

An epitaph of the late second or early third century found in 1715 between the first and second mile of the Via Ardeatina near the church of S. Balbina records that a senior centurion and Roman knight, M. Aurelius Alexander detached from his house (domus, rather than horti, the expanding urban envi...

Tomb Garden of Terentia

A fragmentary (and probably reused) epitaph, probably of the first or second century CE, found in the catacombs of Calepodio beside the Via Aurelia identifies a cepota[phium] of Terentia. Bibliography J. Bodel, Roman Tomb Gardens, Cambridge University Press, 2018, pp. 225, 237. link G.-L. Grego...

Garden restaurant in market garden or workshop (II.iii.7/9) .

This garden restaurant was strategically located across from the Palaestra. It occupied most of the southern part of this insula and had a masonry triclinium (l. medius, 4.90 m.; l. imus and summus 4.50 m.), a round table 1.00 m. in dia. and a square table 0.90 x 0.90. Dates Unspecified Bibliograph...

House of Venus Marina; Casa Della Venere in Conchiglia (II.iii.3)

Redecorating had been just completed to this site at the time of the eruption and here was found the best preserved garden paintings in Pompeii. Nine stuccoed columns, gold below, fluted white above, supported a portico on the west, north and part of the east sides of this peristyle garden (a) at t...

Large Garden in House 4-6 in Pompeii Region II (II.iii.4-6)

B. The small garden to the rear of house 4 had an entrance into this large open area (b) which had been planted at the time of the eruption. There was a second entrance (6) from the side street. At the time of excavation a cistern was noted in the southwest corner, a basin along the south wall just...

Large vineyard.

Located north of the amphitheater, this site was initially identified as the Foro Boario or Cattle Market. A small amount of excavation was started in 1755, but in 1814 the entrance and south wall were excavated. Most of the excavation was completed in the 1950s except the northeastern section. In ...

Memorial Tomb Garden of Ortorius Heleis and Ortoria Eutychis

An inscribed marble plaque found in the early 1930s covering a drain near Ponte Lungo in the region of the Via Tuscolana south of Rome records the epitaph of a Greek-speaking couple, Ortorios Heleis and Ortoria Eutychis, evidently devotees of the cult of Isis, who some time during the second or ear...

Narrow garden in the house of Messius Ampliatus (II.ii.4)

B. The east portico gave access to the narrow garden (b) to the back of the house. Dates Unspecified Bibliography Jashemski, Wilhelmina F, ‘The Garden of Hercules at Pompeii’ (II.viii.6): The Discovery of a Commercial Flower Garden.,American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 83, no. 4, 1979, pp. 403–4...

Peristyle garden in house of Julia Felix (II.iv.a).

A. Three separate gardens were located in this property. It occupies the entire insula and is one of the largest properties in the city. It was originally excavated in 1755-1757, stripped of its works of art and re-buried. In 1951-1952 it was re-excavated and restored but not published. Sixteen ele...

Peristyle garden in house of Messius Ampliatus (II.ii.4)

A. The portico which bordered the peristyle garden (a) on the north and east side was accessed from the entrance hall. This site had been extensively damaged prior to excavation. Dates Unspecified Bibliography Della, Corte M, Case Ed Abitanti Di Pompei, Pompei-scavi: M. Della Corte, 1954. Print. ...

Planting bed in house of Julia Felix (II.iv.c).

C. The remainder of this insula (e) had been planted and at the time of the excavation rectangular planting bed contours were evident. Tree root cavities were noted around the perimeter of each bed and four rectangular water basins (one of which was double) was recorded in the plan as well as a cis...

Small Garden House 4-6 in Pompeii Region II (II.iii.4-6).

A. A small garden (a) at the rear of this connected house and caupona may have originally contained the two small statuettes found at this site in 1953. The two pieces were a headless ithyphallic tufa statuette (0.33 m. high with base; Pompeii inv. no. 10017) and a marble statuette of Venus (0.51 m...

Swimming pool in house of Julia Felix (II.iv.b).

B. An outdoor swimming pool (8.50 x 4.50 m.; 1.50 m. deep) was located in the garden area (d) in the northeast part of the insula. There were steps into the pool on the north and south sides, and an entrance (8) into the area from the side street. Fig.21, 6.8.59 Plans swimming pool Dates Unspec...

The Gardens of Sperlonga. The peristyle garden

These parts of the villa have been relatively spared and they are among the best features of this maritime residence (SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 2002). As a matter of fact, also when the peristyle garden was flourishing, it could never have been as impressive as this imposing cryptoporticus and its underl...

The Gardens of Sperlonga. The peristyle garden

In the villa there are three different garden arrangements (SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1990). Unluckily (Fig. 93) all its quarters have been badly damaged by a colony of monks who, probably toward 800 A.D., established themselves and their peasants there. All this people excavated a well in the peristyle,...

The Gardens of Sperlonga. The peristyle garden

These parts of the villa have been relatively spared and they are among the best features of this maritime residence (SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 2002). As a matter of fact, also when the peristyle garden was flourishing, it could never have been as impressive as this imposing cryptoporticus and its underl...

Tomb Garden of (Cl)oelia Tyche and (C)loelia Faustina

The lower right portion of a marble slab found in the vicinity of the Via del Mare outside Rome records an epitaph of the late first or second century dedicated to a mother, [Cl]oelia Tyche, and sister, [C]loelia Faustina, and their freedmen and freedwomen, and declaring that the property, which co...

Tomb Garden of Anonymous

A fragmentary opisthographic slab of unknown urban provenance, now in the Lapidario Profano ex Lateranense of the Vatican Museums, records an anonymous epitaph dedicating to the dedicator and his household a tomb garden (cepotafi[um]) and tomb monument with a building. Maps Plans Images Dates Unspe...

Tomb Garden of Anonymous

A funerary plaque (evidently complete) discovered in 1861 beside the Via Praenestina near Tor Sapienza records the dimensions of a tomb plot “with a garden enclosed by a wall” eighty-one and a half feet in frontage, forty-three and a half feet in depth (c. 320 square meters). Maps Plans Images Date...

Tomb Garden of Attia Quintilla

A handsome marble funerary altar of unknown but presumably urban provenance, now in the Louvre, decorated on the front with Erotes holding garlands and on the sides with storks and other birds records the epitaph of Attia T. f. Quintilla set up by her father, Attius Phlegon, her mother Attia Quinta...

Tomb Garden of C. Hostius Pamphilus

A travertine slab of unknown urban provenance, now in the Mus-ei Capitolini, records an epitaph of the mid first century BCE of a freedman doctor, C. Hostius C.l. Pamphilus, who bought a tomb (thirteen by twenty-four feet in area) for himself and his wife Nelpia M. l. Hymnis, and for their freedmen...

Tomb Garden of Claudia Peloris

A marble plaque now in the archaeological museum of Perugia but probably of urban origin records the epitaph of a freedwoman of Octavia, the daughter of the deified emperor Claudius, Claudia Peloris, and her husband, also an imperial freedman and procurator of the Augusti, Ti. Claudius Eutychus, wh...

Tomb Garden of M. Aurelius Syntomus and Aurelia Marciane

A marble slab found in 1745 near a circular tomb monument beside the Via Praenestina at the first mile from the Porta Maggiore records “a building with tomb garden (cepotaphium) and monument (memoria)” built up from the ground by M. Aurelius Syntomus and his wife Aurelia Marciane for themselves, th...

Tomb Garden of P. Sullius Zoticus and Sullia Nice

A marble slab of unknown urban provenance broken at the bottom and long lost records an epitaph of the first or second century erected by P. Sullius Zoticus and his wife Sullia Nice to themselves, their children, their freedmen and freedwomen and their descendants; to “another wife” of Zoticus, Iul...

Tomb Garden of Q(uintius) Medicus

An opisthographic marble slab found reused for a Christian tomb (ICUR 8842) in the catacombs of S. Cyriaca on the Via Tiburtina records the epitaph of an imperial freedman, Q(uintius) Medicus, who some time during the first or second century built a tomb garden (cepotafiu(m)) for himself and grante...

villa at site 10

This large complex villa structure was founded in the Augustan period and was abandoned in the early 3rd century A.D, with evidence from pottery of continued occupation that time. Not even the peristyle core of the plan could be dated to what we call Period 1 (the early occupation period of the Via...

villa at site 11

This villa at Site 11 was a simple “U” plan farmhouse initiated at the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. (Period 1). In the Augustan Age this farmhouse was transformed into a more luxurious atrium type villa/residence (Period 2 – Figs. 2 and 3). During the reign of Trajan a bath suite was added as ...

Tomb garden of T. Vettius Hermes (I.iii.23)

A marble stele now in a church at Grazzano records the epitaph of T. Vettius Hermes, a freedman ointment dealer (seplasiarius). After a gnomic sentiment about chthonic birthand reunion (mater genuit materq(ue) recepiit), Hermes goes on to declare that “these gardens, as great and excellent as they ...

Villa at Luna (I.iii.23)

The coastal villa was located at the east end of the Gulf of La Spezia and controlled a large fundus. Little is known of the first nucleus of the villa, dated to 120-100 B.C. The layout that has survived dates to the second phase (80-50 B.C.). The excavated portion of the pars urbana is to the nort...

House of the Ram (La Maison au Bélier)

BEL 2.3.1: Reims, House of the Ram Excavated in 1992-93 by Agnès Balmelle, this vast house probably covered about 2000 square meters. The date of construction is rather uncertain; it could be as early as the end of the first century or as late as the second half of the second (Fig. 1) The excavatio...

House on rue de la Fraternité

Excavated in 1875-79 in the eastern suburbs of the city by A. Ternick, this large house has been uncovered in a roughly elliptical area with axes of 40 and 20 meters. The chronology is uncertain. It was perhaps destroyed by a violent fire (of which there are traces elsewhere in the city) in the sec...

House on rue de la Fraternité

Excavated in 1875-79 in the eastern suburbs of the city by A. Ternick, this large house has been uncovered in a roughly elliptical area with axes of 40 and 20 meters. The chronology is uncertain. It was perhaps destroyed by a violent fire (of which there are traces elsewhere in the city) in the sec...

Rural Villa

The stone structures of this villa rustica, dating to the early second century, replaced earlier timber buildings. With the addition of an annex on the east in the early fourth century, the facade of the house acquired a length of 104 meters. The farm was occupied until the early fifth century. The...

The House aux Fleurons (boulevard de la Paix)

BEL 2.2.1: Reims, House aux Flerurons Along the north side runs a secondary street following the orientation of the town in Augustan times. Along this street, in the northern part of the house, a series of rooms with mosaics were found. On the south side, the space A (about 30 x 14 m) was probably ...

The House aux Fleurons (boulevard de la Paix)

BEL 2.2.1: Reims, House aux Flerurons Along the north side runs a secondary street following the orientation of the town in Augustan times. Along this street, in the northern part of the house, a series of rooms with mosaics were found. On the south side, the space A (about 30 x 14 m) was probably ...

Urban House East of Forum

In only one of the excavated houses of the second and third century in two insulae east of the forum beneath the imperial baths can gardens be shown to have existed. This house was demolished when the imperial baths were erected in the last decade of the third century. It seems to have occupied an ...

Villa Borg

The villa of Borg is situated in a forest between the villages Borg and Oberleuken, community of Perl (Landkreis Merzig-Wadern), in the border-region Germany - Luxembourg - France. The huge villa complex is situated in a densely occupied Roman settlement region on the fertile plateaus between the r...

House of Flavius Germanus (La maison de Flavius Germanicus)

The House of Flavius Germanus, dating to the third century, is located between the decumanus maximus, the decumanus north I, the House of the Labors of Hercules, and the House of Dionysus and the four Seasons. The peristyle was enclosed on four sides by a portico supported by 14 columns (Plan view,...

House of Iustiniani and Sabini (Maison de Kaid Youcef)

The only house for which it is possible to furnish a complete plan is located to the south of the grand temple, from which it was separated by the decumanus. To the east and west side lie two houses, which have yet to be excavated. It is one of the largest domus discovered in Caesarea, covering ove...

House of the Columns (La maison aux colonnes)

The House of the Columns, approximately 1880 square meters, is located to the north of the triumphal arch along the decumanus. The large Rhodian-type peristyle was enclosed on four sides by a portico supported by 14 columns. The space between the columns was spanned by a low wall (Plan view, Fig.1)...

House of the Ephebe (Maison de l'Ephebe)

The House of the Ephebe, approximately 1972 square meters and dating to the third century, is located to the north of the triumphal arch along the decumanus (Plan view, Fig. 1). The large rectangular garden peristyle, 28 by 15 m, was enclosed on four sides by a portico supported by 17 smooth Corint...

House of the Scattered Branches and Flowers (Maison de la Jonchée)

Located on the southeastern seaboard of Cherchel, this domus was only partially excavated but is still considered to be one of the largest houses of Caesarea. The ruins discovered between 1963 and 1964 are spread out over more than 60 meters from east to west and 30 meters from north to south. The ...

House of the Tizerine Cape (Maison du Cap Tizerine)

A large domus, about 2400 square meters, located on the cape of Tizerine, with three separate courtyards, one of which was a garden peristyle (Plan view, Fig. 1). The courtyard to the south, the largest, was partially excavated. Only three porticoes with low walls were visible. There was probably a...

House of the Two Pools (Maison aux Deux Bassins)

There is very little information about this house, only two semi circular pools facing each other have survived. The fountain pool of Ulysses and the Mermaids and the pool of Neptune probably decorated a peristyle with a possible garden. The pools are now preserved in the museum. Plans Images Dates...

House of Venus (Maison du cortège de Vénus)

The House of Venus, approximately 32 by 37 m and dating to the middle of the third century, is located between the south decumanus I, the south decumanus II, the south cardo V, and the House of the Portico. The square-shaped peristyle, 13 by 14 m, was enclosed on four sides by a portico supported b...

Inscription from the former Aptel Estate

An inscription CIL VIII 21081 mentioning a pool covered by a wine trellis supported by two columns was found in the Aptel estate: “vitea quot longis sunt tecta excepta columnis / ac docili libra terentem quot flexus in arcum est ; marmore quot Parea vivunt / spirantia signa aequoris et vario quot p...

Large House with peristyle and basins

The house with a symmetrical floor plan and an axial entry was laid out around a peristyle made up of 20 columns. Many rooms opened onto this space, which have contained a garden. Three semicircular basins extended into the courtyard of the peristyle. A circular pool was centered in the courtyard. ...

The Gordian Palace (Le palais dit de Gordien)

The large domus that belonged to the rich Pompeian family during the second century became the Governor’s palace during the Gordian period. The domus, approximately 69 by 74 m, was located on the north side of the decumanus maximus. The vestibule opened into a rectangular peristyle garden enclosed ...

Villa of the Frescoes (La villa des Fresques)

This large domus looking out toward the sea had known two phases. In the second phase, completed during the Severan period, the courtyard of the peristyle was transformed into a garden, and both baths and a reception room opening toward the sea front were added. The peristyle garden had four portic...

House Cours Pouroules

The garden to the south is not completely known. The north gallery (BG), 5.5 meters wide at its widest point, was paved with black-and-white mosaics for at least 35 meters. At the west was a gallery (17 x 3.5 m) with a floor of pounded earth. One side was perhaps with a full wall pierced by windows...

Suburban Villa de la Brunette

Condition 1: The central building is organized around an atrium which opens to the east on the garden through a 2.9-meter wide portico [3]. This portico extends all along the east side of the building and forms a transition between the rooms of the house and the garden. On the north, it opens onto ...

The villa of Saint Martin

Plans Plan of The Villa of Saint Martin Dates Bibliography Brun, Jean-Pierre. Carte Archéologique De La Gaule: 83, Le Var 1. Paris, 1999, vol.2, P. 765-771, plan P. 765. (worldcat) Pleiades ID 981537 TGN ID 7030317 7602340 Contributor Eric Morvillez (ORCID: 0000-0002-7384-1762) Emilie Chassil...

Villa des Baumelles

Plans Plan of Villa des Baumelles Dates Bibliography Brun, Jean-Pierre. Carte Archéologique De La Gaule: 83, Le Var 1. Paris, 1999, vol.2, P. 639-649, plan P. 641. (worldcat) Bouet, Alain, and Philippe Leveau. Les Thermes Prives Et Publics En Gaule Narbonnaise. S.l.: s.n., 1996, P. 293-294....

Baths of La Planchette

To the northeast there are the baths of la Planchette, today backfilled. This bath complex of modest dimensions may have been attached to the northeast angle of the court of the house. It is surrounded on the exterior by a large gutter for rainwater. To the northeast of the bath building a rectangu...

House with the Arbor, Puymin Quarter, Formerly called the Praetorium

The residential part best known was organized around a garden 17 by 20 meters, framed by three wings in a U. At the center of the east wing, the bottom of the U, a grand stairway with two {curving?) symmetric ramps framing a niche (possibly for a statue) rose to the second storey where a portico ov...

Le Pinard, House A

This vast house lies 120 m southwest of the theater in the southern quarter of the ancient town at a place called le pinard, “the wine” from the pinot grape. Partially excavated in 1967-1968, it is still not entirely unearthed. The known portions extend over 1250 m2 of which 715 m2 are useful cover...

Puymin Quarter,Sanctuary with Portico’s,Formerly called Pompey's Portico

Located to the east of the house of the Laurel-crowned Apollo, 110 meters south of the theater, the Sanctuary with Porticos is not entirely unearthed and continues under the modern city. Constructed in the course of the first century A.D., the monument was formerly interpreted as a public promenade...

Quarter of Saint-Florent, House A – House of the Mosaic with Meanders

The garden was in the square peristyle (9.7 m on a side) with six Corinthian columns on a side. (The east corner has not be found, but can be confidently conjectured, along with the fourth gallery.) The reception room [a] (of nearly 50 sq. m.) was ornamented with a black and white mosaics with mean...

Hermaphrodite House (Maison de l'Hermaphrodite)

The large house was laid out around a large peristyle of 22 columns. In the axis of the triclinium was a rectangular pool. The courtyard may have been planted (Plan view, Fig. 1). Maps Plans Fig. 1: Plan of the Hermaphrodite House. (Rights statement) Images Dates Unspecified Bibliography A. Ba...

House of Sertius (Maison de Sertius)

This large domus the result of the combining of two houses, is located at the periphery of the center of the city. The domus is laid out around two peristyles. The first, near the vestibule had a long rectangular basin placed in the axis of the triclinium, the two strips that bordered the pool may ...

House of the Planters (Maison aux jardinières)

Located SW of the Decumanus and NE of the forum, the house of the “Jardinières” almost square shaped, was laid out around a peristyle of 10 columns. Along the three porticoes and the angles of the fourth were arranged planters (10,50 x10,50 m) whose contours are curved. Double herm-head...

House of the Warehouse (Maison de l'entrepôt)

This large house was laid out around two peristyles (A,B) arranged along the N S axis. The plan presents a complex layout notably in the southern part of the domus upon which the excavators did not comment thoroughly (Plan view, Fig. 1). The S part of the domus was probably added in a latter period...

Water Sanctuary Aqua Eptimania Felix (Sanctuaire des eaux)

The water sanctuary lies beneath the Byzantine fort in the Northern suburbs of the city. An inscription that was discovered during the Byzantine fort excavations enumerates the embellishments that were undertaken in 213 by the city of Timgad for the sanctuary, Aqua Septimania Felix: one of which, a...

Funerary Grove of Q. Cervonius Chryseros

A small inscribed altar of (probably) the Julio-Claudian era found by Mommsen among the stones of Aquileia and now lost records on its left and right sides dedications to Dis Pater and (H)era respectively and, on its front, the name of the dedicant, a consul’s aide (acc(ensus) co(n)s(ularis)) and l...

House of the Mosaic of Hedykoitos

This house in the northwest corner of Neapolis backs onto the edge of the city, against the western wall. It had gardens or terraces on its outside edges. Plans Plan of the House of the Mosaic of Hedykoitos. Adapted from Mar and Ruiz de Arbulo. Dates Unspecified Pleiades ID 187350 TGN ID 702712...

The garden on the back

Excavating the garden of the Laurentinum would have been very interesting, but there was not the time, nor the money. However we found where it was: a rectangular area free from masonry set, as the letter said, on the back of the famous cryptoporticus, one of the principal highlights of the Laurent...

The terrance

However the most enticing garden of the Laurentinum was the terrace, so well described by Pliny the Younger (SALZA PRINA RICOTTI 1989; SALZA PRINA RICOTTI in print). It was set in front of the luminous cryptoporticus with all its windows open toward the Tyrrenian Sea. The two elements ran parallel ...

House of the Fishing Scene

The house stands on the other side of the Wadi Oum El Abid, on the left bank, 120 meters to the north of the capitol. The badly damaged rooms are arranged around a peristyle whose porticoes are paved with mosaics (Plan view, Fig.1). A long basin bisected the garden that was enclosed by a balustrade...

NAR 6.3 Enclos Reynaud, House with the large opus sectile, phase I

This site, the northern part of 5 on the plan of Aix, lay 100 meters from the northern limit of the town. It was uncovered in 1842 by earth movers. It has been only incompletely explored, but 980 square meters of surface are known. Originally, it was thought to have been a public building; but it w...

NAR 6.4 Enclos Reynaud, House with the semicircular bay, phase I

On the north side, two rooms [1] and [2] are symmetrically placed on either side of a large axial room [3] (about 6 x 5.3 m) which opened onto the street. Its floor was covered by a white mosaic with black border. On its south side, a semicircular protrusion extended the room across the portico and...

House of the Trifolium (Maison du Trifolium)

This house is the largest excavated to-date at Thugga. It appears to date from the first half of the 3rd centur. The rooms on the ground floor were arranged around a large court, which was more than 5 m (Plan view, Fig. 1) lower than the street. A garden occupied the center of the court which is en...

Arcos I Public Baths

These baths are remarkable for their size (55 x 95 m), symmetry, and inclusion of a large garden. At the back of the grand semicircular entrance hall opened the garden, formerly thought to have been a natatio. On either side then followed a palestra (Fig. 1, P), an apodyterium or changing room (A),...

Tomb Garden and Orchard of Aphrodisios and Flavia

According to a secondary inscription carved horizontally, perhaps in the third century A.D., across the back of a figured grave stele of perhaps the third or second century B.C., found on the road between the Magnesia gate and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, “this orchard with its sarcophagi and ...

Casa di Galba (VII.2)

The excavation of this site was begun in 1873-1874 and is still incomplete. A silver bust, supposedly of the emperor Galba, found in the street in front of this house gave the site its name. Twelve stuccoed tuffa columns support a portico which encloses this peristyle garden. A marble faced crucifo...

Great Palestra (Insula or. II.4)

The Palaestra was crossed by Burbon tunnels in 1756-1760 and partially excavated from 1933 to 1954. Carbonized remains of large tree trunks found in the southwest corner and along the north side against the portico where they were swept by the volcanic flow indicated to Maiuri that the central area...

Sacred Area Outside the South Walls

The southern edge of town was against a sharp drop to the sea. A terrace located on this drop held two shrines (a) and (b) and a series of rooms for cult activities. All of these faced on a long garden (c) 6.85 x 22.60 m. where the fragments of two large marble fountain basins were found when this ...

House of Taracena

Excavated by Blas Taracena between 1933 and 1935, this house is located to the northeast of the forum. The arrangement of its gardens is most unusual. At the center of the house lies not a courtyard but an almost square summer triclinium with a stunning geometric mosaic. On the four sides were pass...

House of the L-shaped Cistern

This house, which was also set against the lower edge of the city near the port, was excavated in 1924 and 1935 . It had been much altered by burials in late antiquity. Its large cistern yielded a collection of objects from about the time of abandonment : eleven jars of common ceramic, terra sigill...

House of the Peristyle

This well-known large house, situated in the center of the eastern side of Neapolis, just south of the agora, included a peristyle, which enclosed a planted courtyard. In the peristyle courtyard, archaeologists discovered a cistern with a well, a fountain with an exedra, and other elements typical ...

House R2 (Tang AmpR2 and AmpR3)

House R2, situated south of House R1 in the area of the forum of the Roman City (Fig. 1), is of totally different design and is smaller, but equally luxurious. In describing the phases of its construction, we follow Tang’s account (page 126). (Fig. 2) In its first phase, from the first quarte...

Houses N5 and N7

These two adjacent houses are typical Tuscan atrium houses, both are against the western city wall, and both have gardens of some 50 square meters at the back of the house (Fig. 1). In Pompeii, Jashemski found many small, non-peristyle gardens in modest homes. Few have been found elsewhere, probabl...

Villa of Fortunatus

On the left bank of the Cinca about 5 km upstream (north) of Fraga, at the top of a steep bank, this villa sits some fifteen meters above the river below. At high water, the villa could have fairly easily floated its products to the sea. It had a view of the fertile plain on the right bank. The sit...

Villa Romana

This large villa, with both a pars urbana and a pars rustica is on the right (south) bank of the Irati river just below the Foz de Lumbier, a gorge cut by the river through a limestone hill. The villa was discovered by chance in the course of agricultural work in 1921. A number of mosaics were imme...

House of Condes de Barcelona Street

Excavations in the late 1940s and 1950s brought to light the remains of an urban house. Among the structures identified was a peristyle. The presence of a fountain and the existence of a dividing screen, or pluteus, caused Balil to assert that the house must have contained gardens. Two porticos wer...

Vilarenc

The villa dates from the first century BC to the third century AD when it was transformed into a bath complex. It was partially reclaimed as a villa in late Roman and Medieval times. The excavators identified one of the rooms as a garden (Fig. 1, a) because of a fountain at its south side; however,...

House of Hylas

This house, with three garden areas, is just east of the Santiponce cemetery. The principal garden, to the south, had a fountain with a rectangular basin in the center. The walls of the basin were covered with mosaics representing fish and molluscs. To the east opened a triclinium, identifiable by ...

House of the Birds

This large, typical ‘peristyle house’ had a courtyard that provided light for all the rooms of the house. The entrance was on the southwest side of the house from the main street leading from the gate where the visitor enters. After a small vestibule and a wide fauces, one came directly into the pe...

House of the Deep Trench

In late antiquity, a new city wall was built excluding most of the Hadrianic addition. This house, however, remained inside the new wall and was therefore occupied longer and is somewhat better preserved than most other houses of the second century expansion. The street along its south side led to ...

House of the Rhodian Peristyle

This house is on the top of a hill and has thus been exposed to more erosion and pillage of stone than most. The entrance was on the east side and led into the peristyle. One of its galleries was higher than the other three. Vitruvius 6.7.3 used the term “Rhodian” to describe such peristyles, and t...

House of the Triclinium

This house, in the area southeast of the House of Hylas, had a peristyle garden that, even in its poor state of preservation, can be theoretically reconstructed, as done by Blázquez and drawn by F. Riat. Maps Images Dates unspecified Bibliography Antonio Garcia y Bellido,Colonia aelia augusta ...

Theater

The Italica Theater makes use of the side of a hill to support most of its gradería, as do all known theaters in Spain. It was built in the oldest sector of the city and in a location earlier occupied by a simpler structure. The theater had a portico behind the scaena in which there was a chapel to...

Carmona, near Seville (Hispalis) BAETICA

In the necropolis of Carmona, near Seville, is a very large and deep tomb created in a shallow area that had been excavated in the rock (Fig.7). Named the Elephant tomb after a statue of an elephant found just at the entrance of the repository. (Fig. 7, b). In a corner of the tomb, there was a very...

Collegium

A building just south of the public park has been identified as the seat of a Collegium because of its internal structure and size. It was previously known as ‘The House of the Exedra.’ It occupies an entire insula, some 4,000 square meters. In its center is a peristyle, which was surrounded by gal...

House of the Mithra

Excavations identified two building phases in the villa. The early Imperial phase of the villa contained a peristyle courtyard with a pool, central drain and possibly a garden. During the late Imperial phase (fourth century AD), the pool was converted into a double fountain with two semicircular ex...

Public Square

This triangular area, number 19 on the map and on the visitor’s left immediately after entering the walled area, is the only public garden space thus far identified in Roman Spain. Its triangular in form is determined by the angle between the city wall and the grid of the streets. Maps Imag...

Sanctuary

The sanctuary occupies various terraces and dominates the city below. The plan of the sanctuary follows a Hellenistic model, late-Republican in date. The structure is symmetrical in design with an apsidal space backed by the temple and its dependencies. The sanctuary was constructed in the second h...

Villa Bruñel

This villa, 5 kilometers north of the center of Quesada, was excavated in eight campaigns between 1965 and 1971, and had multiple phases of construction. The north end of the villa appears as a normal peristyle villa. Directly across the middle of the peristyle and its garden, a mighty wall slices ...

House of the Large Peristyle

 Only its eastern end has been uncovered, and of the rooms for living – presumably to the west – very little is known. What is known is a large peristyle of unusual form with a center certainly planted as a garden. The long axis of the peristyle ran almost due north to make an angle of about ...

House of the Ocean Gods

A century passed before further major modifications. Then the eight columns of the vestibule on the south were removed, and the mosaic floor with the heads of the ocean gods in the four corners (which gives its name to the house) was installed there. In the middle was of the vestibule was a circula...

La Plaine, House A under the High School

Plans Plan of La Plaine, House B under the High School Dates Bibliography Maison 1996, t. II,, p. 362-363 Lancha, Janine. Recueil General Des Mosaïques De La Gaule: Iii. Paris: CNRS, 1981, P. 302-307.worldcat M. Leglay, Informations archéologiques, in Gallia, 29, 2, 1971, P. 424-425.worl...

Villa

At the rear of this villa there is a grand euripus running the length of the large rectangular garden. Maps Images Dates unspecified Bibliography P. Rodriguez Oliva, La arqueológia romana de Benalmádena, Ayuntamiento de Benalmádena, (Malaga 1982).(worldcat) P. Rodriguez Oliva,Anuario Arqueologico...

Casa del Colonnato Tuscanico (VI.17/26)

This house with an L-shaped floor plan had a peristyle garden (a) at the juncture of the two wings enclosed by a seventeen column portico. The garden entrance facing the large room to the north had double columns, and the garden could be approached from the atrium or from the entrance off the stree...

Villa of Santa Lucia

Excavation in 1968 – 1972 at this site, which has been reburied, revealed over half the area of a large, fourth century villa, laid out around a central peristyle garden (31.2 x 28.8 m). The excavations exposed the western half of the site while samples and trenches established the broad outlines o...

Villa en Puente de la Olmilla

This fourth-century villa was discovered in 1973. An apse and a figured mosaic with two panthers mark the room on the north corner as probably the triclinium. It did not, however, have a view of the garden but looked along the northeast gallery of the peristyle. That there was a garden is indicated...

Temple Grove of Nikephorion

King Eumenes II of Pergamum employed a gardener to plant new trees and nurse damaged ones back to health in the grove of the Nikephorion, following an attack on the city by Philip V of Macedon in 201 B.C., during which Philip V ordered his troops to cut down trees in the sanctuary (Polybios 16.1.6)...

Domus of the Sea Front (Villa du front de mer)

The upper level of this large house (after 330, according to stratigraphic dating) resulted from the joining of three dwellings and was built over two earlier levels, the courtyards or peristyles of which are still unknown. Like a maritime villa, the house had a long loggia, which extended and open...

House of Dionysos

In this very damaged house, a portico on four sides (IV-VII) enclosed a court (VIII) (8 x 11.10 m), which was planted during the building’s second phase dated at the fourth/early fifth century. The northeast and southwest porticos had four columns and the northwest and southeast had five columns. A...

House of the Aviary (Maison de la Volière)

Located on a hill overlooking Carthage, the house of the aviary is divided into two parts: the unit centered on the peristyle in the west, and the ensemble with the reception room in the east (Plan view, Fig. 1). In the center of the peristyle in the western part of the house was an octagonal area ...

House of the Bassilica (Maison de la Bassilica)

The house was located in the insula delimited by the Decumani North V-VI and the Kardines East VIII-IX and neighboring to the North West the Villa of the Aviary. Unfortunately, the house was badly preserved when Gauckler the excavator discovered it (Plan view, Fig. 1). The peristyle was bounded by ...

House of the Cryptoporticus (Maison du Cryptoportique)

The house of the Cryptoporticus occupies the hill of the Odeon on the insula that is located between the decumani N IV and V and the kardines E IX and X. The house is organized around a peristyle garden with a grand oecus of 200m2 paved with opus sectile opening into it (Plan view, Fig. 1). The hou...

House of the Nymphs (Maison des Nymphes)

This large house (1500m2) laid-out around a peristyle-garden is known for its mosaic pavements figuring Homeric scenes. The peristyle is entered from the S. The N wing had a vast oecus-triclinium bordered on both sides by two apartments that each had two rooms and a passage to a pseudo-atrium (Plan...

House of the Salsamenta (Usine de salaison)

A fish-curing factory located to the SE of the Nymfarum domus was renovated between the IInd and the IIIrd centuries. Among the changes made was the design of a small house organized around a small peristyle garden (4 x 4 m.) (XXII) and bound by a low wall that curved to make a semi-circular basin ...

House of the Seasons (La maison des Saisons)

This house, known for its majestic and richly decorated oecus, is laidout around a peristyle courtyard that was probably planted. The house is dated to the late IVth. early Vth. Century (Plan view, Fig. 1). Maps Plans Fig. 1: Plan of the House of the Seasons. (Rights statement) Images Dates The...

House of the Viridarium (Maison du viridarium à niches)

The house was located in the W neighborhood of the ancient city of Pupput and in present day lies in the precinct of a hotel, the construction of which badly damaged the house (Plan view, Fig.1). The house has had three phases. During the second phase the garden peristyle (V) was bounded by a low w...

House of two peristyles (Maison aux deux péristyles)

This large house (850 to 900m2) was built on the sea front and was laid out around a peristyle garden. The eastern part of the domus was destroyed by the sea; the western portico is complete, only a part of the north and south porticoes of the peristyle have survived. The peristyle was approximatel...

House of Venus (Maison de Venus)

This richly decorated house is located to the east of the forum. A portico on four sides enclosed a court (ca 6.6x11.5m) that may have been planted in the early period of the house (Plan view, Fig.1, 2). An oecus-triclinium with the famous fish mosaics opened off the north side of the portico. A la...

Villa el Santiscal

This rich country villa on the left bank of the Guadalete (Pleiades) River was begun in the first century and continued in use through the fourth century with its heyday in the third century AD. Figured mosaics found in the nineteenth century are now lost. Partial excavations around 1965 disclosed ...

House No. 1 or West House

The entrance [Fig. 1, 2] to this house was on the west side of the colonnaded street. Just to the north was a shop [23] selling fish and garum; its tanks are still in place. The entrance hall leads into the west gallery of the peristyle courtyard [25]. There are three columns on each side of the co...

House of the Sundial

Located across the colonnaded street from West house was the House of the Sundial. This house had a rectangular peristyle courtyard with four columns on the long side and three on the shorter side, gutters around the edges, and a well in the center. According to Sillières, the courtyard was paved i...

Funerary Grove of T. Aemilius Vetus

A grey limestone block found in 1975 at La Alameda, between Toledo and Cordova, and now preserved in the Museo Provinciale di Ciuidad Real, records the dedication of a funerary grove (lucus) by Minicia Saturnina for her son T. Aemilius Vetus, who died at age thirty-five sometime in the late first o...

Villa el Ruedo

The location of this villa was excavated in 1989, when, owing to a lack of coordination between the Consejeria de Cultura and the Conseqeria de Obras Publicas, a major intersection for A-339 was planned exactly over the villa. An unusual aspect of this site is that the planting pits for trees shadi...

Temple Grove of Apollo

The sanctuary of Apollo at Didyma was a regional sanctuary that lay on the border of Caria and Ionia (Strabo 12.1.2). The Temple of Apollo, attested by Strabo (12.1.5), was built on the site of the spring and oracle of Apollo mentioned by Herodotus (1.92.159) and Pausanius (7.2.6). Inscriptions fou...

Villa Romana de els Munts

This richly adorned pleasure villa by the sea was built early in the first century AD and continued in use into the fifth century. Its period of greatest splendor was between about 100 and 250 AD. It was pillaged and burned shortly after 268, dated by a hoard of coins found in the underground priso...

House A, Piazza della Vittoria

There is a circular pool in the center of the peristyle in this grand house (Fig. 5). The date of this pool may belong to the substantial refashioning of the dwelling in the third century A. D. Maps Plans Images Fig. 5 Palermo, Piazza della Vittoria, plans of houses A, B and C Dates Bibliograph...

House B, Piazza della Vittoria

A pool, still frescoed in blue, has recently been uncovered at the south end of the peristyle, no doubt opposite the principal room of the south range (which remains to be excavated) of this house, which lies adjacent to houses A and C. The excavation is not yet published and does not appear on Fig...

House C, Piazza della Vittoria

There is a rectangular tank or fountain set against the rear wall of a small internal court (Fig. 5) in this almost totally unexcavated house, which lies back to back with the house containing garden 4. Maps Plans Images Fig. 5 Palermo, Piazza della Vittoria, plans of houses A, B and C Dates Bi...

House Grounds of the “Villa San Pancrazio”

In private housing at this site on the east coast no excavation has so far been attempted to reveal the presence of gardens, and little is known of the arrangements for running water in houses to irrigate such gardens or to supply ornamental pools and fountains. This town house has a small rectangu...

PUBLIC GARDEN Syracuse

In the Roman period, the clearest evidence for the presence of a formal garden in a public place comes from Syracuse, where an impressive piazza, 175 by 45 meters, was laid out early in the Augustan period on the west side of the third-century B. C. Altar of Hieron (Fig. 2). A U-shaped stoa was ere...

Villa at Borgellusa di Avola

There is a four meter square basin located in the middle of the space enclosed by the peristyle (Fig. 6). Belonging to Farrar’s type D, the pool has a square exterior and an inner outline of semicircular corner niches alternating with rectangular recesses. Probably belonging to the first half of th...

Villa at Castroreale San Biagio

There is a rectangular fountain basin set at the south end of the peristyle facing the triclinium, probably of the second century A. D. (Figs 8 and 9). Maps Plans Images Fig. 8 Castroreale San Biagio, plan of Roman villa Dates Bibliography R. J. A. Wilson, Sicily under the Roman Empire, Warmins...

Villa at Durrueli di Realmonte

There is a small semicircular basin (Farrar Type E) inserted in a secondary period in the north edge of the peristyle, facing the principal marble-paved reception or dining-room of the north wing (Fig. 10). The basin has marble wall-veneer and plain tessellation on its floor (Fig 11). This arrangem...

Villa at Patti Marina

This fourth-century villa on the north coast has also yielded evidence for a garden (but no ornamental pools). A figured mosaic pavement belonging to an earlier, third-century villa was found inside the courtyard of the later villa, but it had been heavily damaged by cuttings through it for the pla...

Villa in the Casale district near Piazza Armerina

The sumptuous fourth-century villa has, not surprisingly, a large and most elaborately-shaped pool at the center of its main peristyle (Farrar Type G: Fig. ): it consists of a rectangular central basin with outward-curving recesses in the middle of the long sides, and two independent demi-lune pool...

Villa in the Casale district near Piazza Armerina

The sumptuous fourth-century villa has, not surprisingly, a large and most elaborately-shaped pool at the center of its main peristyle (Farrar Type G: Fig. ): it consists of a rectangular central basin with outward-curving recesses in the middle of the long sides, and two independent demi-lune pool...

Asclepeia Building

The Asklepeia monument, so-called from a mosaic inscription, is located to the northeast of the House of the Muses. (Plan view, Fig. 1) This building is divided into three sections: the central building, the northeast sector and the private baths. The central building, probably a house, presents an...

Asclepeia Building

The Asklepeia monument, so-called from a mosaic inscription, is located to the northeast of the House of the Muses. (Plan view, Fig. 1) This building is divided into three sections: the central building, the northeast sector and the private baths. The central building, probably a house, presents an...

House of Sorothus (Maison de Sorothus)

This very damaged house was laid out around a peristyle garden. A semi-circular and bisected basin was placed on the axis of the reception room (Pan view, Fig. 1). The small wall that enclosed the garden was painted with flowers. Maps Map: Map of Hadrementum. 1. House of Sorothus, 2. House of the...

House of Asinus Rufinus

The house of Asinus Rufinus (900m2) is located in the center of the city. Towards the south its façade extends along an open area partially excavated and is interpreted as the possible forum of the city. The house contains a mosaic pavement of Hercules and an inscription located in the main entranc...

House of Asinus Rufinus

The house of Asinus Rufinus (900m2) is located in the center of the city. Towards the south its façade extends along an open area partially excavated and is interpreted as the possible forum of the city. The house contains a mosaic pavement of Hercules and an inscription located in the main entranc...

House of the Bust of Marcus Aurelius

This domus (ca. 1000 m²) has a large central garden (250 m²) enclosed by a peristyle (20.20 x 21.40 m, 432.30 m²) (Plan view, Fig. 1). The northwest wing seems the most important area of the house. It had a large corridor that opened onto a portico with a view toward the garden. In the garden, alon...

House of the Bust of Marcus Aurelius

This domus (ca. 1000 m²) has a large central garden (250 m²) enclosed by a peristyle (20.20 x 21.40 m, 432.30 m²) (Plan view, Fig. 1). The northwest wing seems the most important area of the house. It had a large corridor that opened onto a portico with a view toward the garden. In the garden, alon...

House of the Fishing Scene

The house stands on the other side of the Wadi Oum El Abid, on the left bank, 120 meters to the north of the capitol. The badly damaged rooms are arranged around a peristyle whose porticoes are paved with mosaics (Plan view, Fig.1). A long basin bisected the garden that was enclosed by a balustrade...

House of the Fishing Scene

The house stands on the other side of the Wadi Oum El Abid, on the left bank, 120 meters to the north of the capitol. The badly damaged rooms are arranged around a peristyle whose porticoes are paved with mosaics (Plan view, Fig.1). A long basin bisected the garden that was enclosed by a balustrade...

House of the Masks (Maison des Masques)

Known for its mosaic pavements, the domus of the Masks was laid out around a large peristyle that may have had a garden. The triclinium that opened on the W towards the peristyle was bordered on two sides by pillars that opened towards a rear garden, the third side is not clear as the house is dest...

House of the Muses

The house, noteworthy for its many and varied mosaic floors, is located on the right side of Oum El Abid river in a residential neighborhood. This vast domus is laid out around a peristyle onto which the rooms open. The courtyard (6.50 x 6.50 m) may have been planted (Plan view, Fig. 1). A long bas...

House of the Muses

The house, noteworthy for its many and varied mosaic floors, is located on the right side of Oum El Abid river in a residential neighborhood. This vast domus is laid out around a peristyle onto which the rooms open. The courtyard (6.50 x 6.50 m) may have been planted (Plan view, Fig. 1). A long bas...

House of the Ostriches (Maison des Autruches)

In this incomplete house, the peristyle-garden was bounded by a low wall that curved to make six semi-circular niches facing the galleries of the peristyle (Plan view, Fig. 1). The two niches located on the East-West axis of the triclinium are wider with the one facing the triclinium containing a b...

House of the small Peristyle

This small house (320 m²) is located on the lower part of the hill, south of the House of Marcus Aurelius. The plan is characteristic of small houses with a peristyle (Plan view, Fig. 1). The west part of the house is occupied by a large triclinium opening onto the peristyle. Four other rooms paved...

House of the small Peristyle

This small house (320 m²) is located on the lower part of the hill, south of the House of Marcus Aurelius. The plan is characteristic of small houses with a peristyle (Plan view, Fig. 1). The west part of the house is occupied by a large triclinium opening onto the peristyle. Four other rooms paved...

House of the Triumph of Neptune

The fully excavated House of the Triumph of Neptune (1172 m2) is situated in the northern part of the city. The house has a complete peristyle with one aisle entrance situated indirectly from the northeast (Plan view, Fig. 1). Opposite the entry, the western wing of the house is organized with a va...

House of the Triumph of Neptune

The fully excavated House of the Triumph of Neptune (1172 m2) is situated in the northern part of the city. The house has a complete peristyle with one aisle entrance situated indirectly from the northeast (Plan view, Fig. 1). Opposite the entry, the western wing of the house is organized with a va...

House of the Two Hunts

Known for its beautiful hunting scene mosaics, this large domus (1100m2) was laid out around a square shaped peristyle-garden (15.50x15m) (Plan view, Fig. 1, 2, 3). The low wall of four porticos enclosed the viridarium, which curves to form an apse in front of the oecus. The house was constructed o...

House of the Two Hunts

Known for its beautiful hunting scene mosaics, this large domus (1100m2) was laid out around a square shaped peristyle-garden (15.50x15m) (Plan view, Fig. 1, 2, 3). The low wall of four porticos enclosed the viridarium, which curves to form an apse in front of the oecus. The house was constructed o...

Suburban Villa

On the other side of the fortified enceinte, one hundred and fifty kilometers south was a large building that belonged to an architect according to an inscription found near the peristyle. This huge suburban villa incompletely excavated, was laid out around two peristyles (Plan view, Fig. 1). A lar...

Suburban Villa

On the other side of the fortified enceinte, one hundred and fifty kilometers south was a large building that belonged to an architect according to an inscription found near the peristyle. This huge suburban villa incompletely excavated, was laid out around two peristyles (Plan view, Fig. 1). A lar...

House of the Labors of Hercules (La maison des travaux d'Hercules)

The House of the Labors of Hercules, dating to the beginning of the second century CE, is located between the cardo maximum, the cardo north II, and the decumanus north I in the northeast neighborhood of Volubilis. The peristyle had a trapezoidal shape and was enclosed on four sides by a portico su...

Small House with peristyle and basins

The house was laid out around a peristyle that may have had a garden. 12 columns surrounded the courtyard, with three semicircular pools extending into it. Plans Fig. 1: Plan of Small House with peristyle and basins in Portus Magnus (Rights Statement) Images Dates Excavation Dates Bibliography ...

Basilica-House of the Theater

This late-imperial domus was discovered by J. Ramón Mélida while excavating the backstage of the Theater. The existence of two rooms with apses at the east end led to the interpretation of the building as an early Christian basilica. Few of the structures in this residence of the 2nd and 4th centur...

Bath Complex

N 39 53' 10” W 2° 48' 45” Monumental baths about 88 meters long and 40 meters wide were built in Flavian times in the north end of the city. Immediately after the entry came a large peristyle courtyard. Perhaps it was a garden but could also have been primarily a palestra. At the end away from the ...

House of Alcazaba

Within the enclosure of the Islamic Alcazaba, west of the city, are the remains of this great late-Imperial domus, excavated in the 1970’s by D. José Álvarez Sáenz de Buruaga. It remains unpublished. The principal element of its peristyle is a deep rectangular pool with a semicircular extensi...

House of the Amphitheater

Next to the Amphitheater, on the east side of Augusta Emerita, are the remains of two extramural residences. The archaeological excavations of these domestic structures were begun in 1947 by José de Calasanz Serra Ráfols, who was succeeded by M. Pous, Álvarez Sáenz de Buruaga, and E. García Sandova...

House of the Hill Garden

Very little is known about the characteristics of this intramurally situated domus, whose remains were discovered in 1976 during explorations in the grounds of the ‘Hill Garden.’ In the emergency excavations carried out by José Álvarez Sáenz de Buruaga, the remains of two peristyles were discovered...

House of the Mithraeum

The great house built adjacent to the San Albin Hill, in the extreme southwest of the city, offers a handsome example of a suburban domus, whose refined decoration indicates an owner with intellectual and philosophical interests. The house derives its name from its proximity to the remains of a pos...

Houses Under the Museum

Prior to building the present Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, excavations were undertaken at the site in 1978 and 1979. Two suburban residences were explored and preserved in the crypt of the museum. These contained at least three courtyards. One was a colonnaded courtyard of ‘marble,’ and this smal...

Peristyle of the Theater

The space behind the theater screen comprises one of the best preserved gardens of Augusta Emerita. It consisted of a rectangular enclosure surrounded on the north, east, and west sides by ambulatories formed by double colonnades of granite with Corinthian capitals and red-stuccoed bases. The wall ...

Schola of the Collegium Fabrum

The Schola of the collegium fabrum had a nympheum (a) decorated by a sculptural group of two figures pouring water (a reclining nymph and a group with a drunken Dionysus supported by Silenius) and at least two other sculptures, a sleeping Eros and a herakliskos – the infant Hercules struggling with...

Schola of the Collegium Fabrum

The Schola of the collegium fabrum had a nympheum (a) decorated by a sculptural group of two figures pouring water (a reclining nymph and a group with a drunken Dionysus supported by Silenius) and at least two other sculptures, a sleeping Eros and a herakliskos – the infant Hercules struggling with...

Temple of Diana

The Temple of Diana is the only surviving religious building from the Augusta Emerita Forum. Despite its name, it was actually dedicated to the imperial cult and dates to the end of the Augustan period. Excavations conducted in 1972 by J. Mª. Álvarez Martínez produced some evidence for a garden in ...

Theater

The theater of Tarraco is poorly preserved. Part of the orchestra, the proscaenium, the scaena frons, the first five rows of seats, and a cryptoporticus running parallel to the curved façade survive. Connected to the theater was a monumental nympheum (a) and a large garden area (b), through which p...

Theater

The theater of Tarraco is poorly preserved. Part of the orchestra, the proscaenium, the scaena frons, the first five rows of seats, and a cryptoporticus running parallel to the curved façade survive. Connected to the theater was a monumental nympheum (a) and a large garden area (b), through which p...

Villa de Los Villares

41° 42' 49” N, 3° 09' 03” The villa is about 200 meters south of the center of the modern village of Santervas del Burgo and about 100 meters south of the left bank of the river Cejos. The ruins are reburied beneath the earth in a field, awaiting funds to present them properly. The villa was built ...

Villa El Soldán (The Sultan)

N 42° 27' 14” W 6° 14' 26” The villa is 300 meters eastnortheast of the eastern tip of Laguna Cernea, north of the modern village Santa Colomba de Somoza. The Laguna Cernea is an artificial pond created by the Romans for washing gold, now frequently dry. It was presumably the residence of the offic...

Villa El Soldán (The Sultan)

N 42° 27' 14” W 6° 14' 26” The villa is 300 meters eastnortheast of the eastern tip of Laguna Cernea, north of the modern village Santa Colomba de Somoza. The Laguna Cernea is an artificial pond created by the Romans for washing gold, now frequently dry. It was presumably the residence of the offic...

562.Insula or. I.2-3(B)

B. From the atrium the peristyle on the lower level was reached by way of a steeply sloping corridor. Stuccoed brick columns and a low wall 0.50 m. high enclosed the central area (b) and a large gutter collected water from the edges and conducted it to the cistern. A rectangular pool ca. 2.60 x 5.0...

563.Insula or. I.2-3(C)

C. There are five rooms south of the peristyle and on a lower level beyond them is another garden (c). Plans Plan of the new excavations of Herculaneum (Maiuri, Herculaneum) Herculaneum - insula orientalis I. 1-3-c Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Dates Unspecified Bibliography Maiuri, Er...

564.Insula or. I.2-3(D)

D. A rustic shrine was attached to the north side of the house and a long narrow garden (d) was located here. There was evidence of earlier construction at this location. Plans Plan of the new excavations of Herculaneum (Maiuri, Herculaneum) Herculaneum - insula orientalis I. 1-3-d Pleiades...

Casa del Rivievo di Telefo (Insula or. I.2-3)

A. The excavation of this house in 1934-1936 revealed an unusual atrium arrangement, which Maiuri states is the first time the architectural scheme that is used in a peristyle was stylishly applied to the atrium. The atrium had no fauces, there were three columns on both the north and south sides, ...

Casa del Salone Nero (VI.13/11)

Excavation of this garden (a) to the rear of this elegant house took place in the spring of 1939. The garden was completely surround by a portico which had eight columns and two pillars on the north side with engaged columns placed strategically so as to provide an unimpeded view from the tablinium...

Casa della Gemma (Insula or. I.1)

A. This garden (a) is built partially into the edge of the hill and partially on vaults. A square opening enclosed by a high wall in the center of the garden supplies light to the floor below, shared by both the Casa della Gemma with windows on three sides and the Casa del Rilievo di Telefo next do...

Insula or. I.1

B. The front of this house has an L-shaped terrace (b) which provided a passageway between the kitchen and the triclinium that opened onto the long loggia (c) with a spectacular view of the Bay. The terrace could have been decorated with potted plants. A gutter on the edges of the terrace, exceptin...

Insula or. II

Directly south of the Great Palaestra there is a peristyle garden (a) enclosed by a portico. A pool with a low wall surrounding it is located in the center of this garden. Plans Plan of the new excavations of Herculaneum (Maiuri, Herculaneum) Herculaneum - Garden (a) south of the Great Palaes...

Funerary Grove of Epikrates and Tomb Garden of Tertia and Secundus

A large stele of light grey marble inscribed on both sides and found in 1965 lying in a field between Akhisar (Thyateira) and Kirkağuç (Nakrason) in the border land between Lydia and Mysia records the final part (perhaps second half) of the will of a certain Epikrates, the son of Epikrates, from Th...

Temple Garden, Sanctuary of Asklepios

Inscriptions of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. record certain regulations for the maintenance of a sacred grove belonging to Asklepios on the island of Kos. Cypress trees are specifically mentioned, and it was unlawful to cut them down or remove wood from the sanctuary. In the mid-first centur...

Casa A Graticcio

538.III.13-15. This multi-family dwelling was excavated in 1927-1929. There was a small paved courtyard (a) 1.97 x 2.97 m. located to provide light and air to the surrounding apartments which was enclosed on the east, north and west by a low wall 0.76 m. high which formeda catch basin for rainwater...

Casa A Graticcio

538.III.13-15. This multi-family dwelling was excavated in 1927-1929. There was a small paved courtyard (a) 1.97 x 2.97 m. located to provide light and air to the surrounding apartments which was enclosed on the east, north and west by a low wall 0.76 m. high which formeda catch basin for rainwater...

Casa con Giardino

553.V.33 This humble house had a huge garden (a) which was entered from the long fauceson the north. Most likely used to grow produce, Maiuri speculated that the garden may have belonged to the larger houses to the west at one time. Plans Plan of Casa A Graticcio Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 70318...

Casa dei Cervi

545.IV.21 A. Of all the houses that overlooked the Bay on the south edge of the city, this house excavated in 1929-1932 was the most elegant. The triclinium(b) on the north was on an axis through the spacious garden with the large oecus(c) on the south, dividing the garden (a) into two large rectan...

Casa del bel Cortile

Appendix II. 110.V.8. The illusion of a gardentrellis was created in this house withno garden by painting the archway under a flight of stairs in the courtyard with climbing vines and flowering oleanders Plans Plan of Casa dell’Ara Laterizia Plan of Casa dell’Ara Laterizia Images Illustra...

Casa del Bicentenario

551.V.15-16. Two hundred years after the first excavation efforts started at Herculaneum in 1738, this house was excavated and the restoration finished, thereby receiving its name. A passageway with windows bordered the garden (a) on the west and a portico with seven columns joined by a low wall st...

Casa del Gran Portale

554.V.35. Just to the west of the entrance to this house was a small, raised courtyard (a) which supplied light and air to the residence. This area collected rain water from the roof and directed it into the cistern which had a covered overflow emptying onto the street. Garden paintings in this cou...

Casa del Mobilio Carbonizzato

549.V.5. Visible from the fauces, this little courtyard (a) had an elaborate aedicula shrine which was excavated in 1932-1933. A low double wall with a gutter bordered the courtyard on the west and north sides with a cistern opening located in the center of the west edge of garden. Four small flowe...

Casa del Mosaico di Nettuno e di Anfitrite

550.V.6/7 To the very back of this house, excavated in 1932-1936, there was a small courtyard (a) that served as a garden having a summer triclinium and garden paintings on the walls. It was converted into a beautiful nymphaeum and at that time a mosaic panel was created featuring Neptune and Amphi...

Casa del Paprio Dipinto

544.IV.8-9. This narrow house excavated in 1929-1932 had a small paved courtyard serving as both a light well and an impluvium. This area could have held potted plants. A hunt scene once decorated the back wall, featuring lions and bulls, scenes more typically found on the walls of more luxurious d...

Casa del Paprio Dipinto

544.IV.8-9. This narrow house excavated in 1929-1932 had a small paved courtyard serving as both a light well and an impluvium. This area could have held potted plants. A hunt scene once decorated the back wall, featuring lions and bulls, scenes more typically found on the walls of more luxurious d...

Casa del Telaio

548.V.4/3. There was a courtyard (a) in the center of this house which was apparently attached to a textrina. The courtyard was surrounded by a portico with seven supporting brick columns. These were connected by a low wall and a second wall on the inside was slightly lower and formed a gutter. A t...

Casa del Tramezzo di Legno

537.III.11. Casa del Tramezzo di Legno The excavation of this house was begun in 1869-1875, but the excavation of the garden and restoration of the house was completed in the time period from January 1928 to December 1929. A wide opening on the west offered a view of the garden from the triclinium(...

Casa del Tramezzo di Legno

537.III.11. Casa del Tramezzo di Legno The excavation of this house was begun in 1869-1875, but the excavation of the garden and restoration of the house was completed in the time period from January 1928 to December 1929. A wide opening on the west offered a view of the garden from the triclinium(...

Casa dello Scheletro

The small light well of this house had once been occupied by a pool. By the time of the eruption it had been filled with soil and converted to a small garden (a). During this change an aedicula was built on a high podium against the back wall, decorated with mosaic and shells, and garden paintings ...

Casa dello Scheletro

The small light well of this house had once been occupied by a pool. By the time of the eruption it had been filled with soil and converted to a small garden (a). During this change an aedicula was built on a high podium against the back wall, decorated with mosaic and shells, and garden paintings ...

Casa dell’Alcova

542.IV.3-4. A. Two separate dwellings were united to form this house, excavated in 1928-1929. The northern house has three courtyards. The first (a) is directly off of the vestibule, the second is a covered atrium(b) with a small courtyard that collected roof water, and the third courtyard (c) in t...

Casa dell’Alcova

542.IV.3-4. A. Two separate dwellings were united to form this house, excavated in 1928-1929. The northern house has three courtyards. The first (a) is directly off of the vestibule, the second is a covered atrium(b) with a small courtyard that collected roof water, and the third courtyard (c) in t...

Casa dell’Ara Laterizia

539.III.17. At the rear of this small house there was a courtyard with an impressive brick altar against the rear wall. Maiuri felt this was probably a roofed area which would have been a sacellum. This area was excavated in 1927-1929 and may have held a few potted plants. 540.III.19-18/1-2 Because...

Casa dell’Ara Laterizia

539.III.17. At the rear of this small house there was a courtyard with an impressive brick altar against the rear wall. Maiuri felt this was probably a roofed area which would have been a sacellum. This area was excavated in 1927-1929 and may have held a few potted plants. 540.III.19-18/1-2 Because...

Casa dell’Atrio a Mosaico

541.IV.1-2 A windowed portico surrounded this garden (a) on the north, south and west. The east side was bordered by a narrow corridor which Maiuri proposed had glass in woodenframes set on the outside edge of the low wall. This wall had a planting space 0.16 m. wide in the top next to where the wi...

Casa dell’Atrio a Mosaico

541.IV.1-2 A windowed portico surrounded this garden (a) on the north, south and west. The east side was bordered by a narrow corridor which Maiuri proposed had glass in woodenframes set on the outside edge of the low wall. This wall had a planting space 0.16 m. wide in the top next to where the wi...

Casa dell’Atrio Corontio

552.V.30. A shallow cruciform-shaped impluvium was the central feature in the rectangular atrium of this house excavated in 1933-1934. The atrium gave the impression of a peristyle garden by way of the fountain centered in the impluvium, the plantings on either side and three tuffa columns on eithe...

Casa D’Argo

533.II.2. A. The earliest excavations of Herculaneum were done with underground tunnels. Several of these crossed this site and were discovered sixty three years later when further excavation of this patrician house was conducted in1828-1835. Eight brick columns and one engaged column stood on each...

Casa D’Argo

533.II.2. A. The earliest excavations of Herculaneum were done with underground tunnels. Several of these crossed this site and were discovered sixty three years later when further excavation of this patrician house was conducted in1828-1835. Eight brick columns and one engaged column stood on each...

Casadetta del Genio

This house was partially excavated in 1829-1830 and again in 1850. The portico had a floor on the east slightly lower than the sections on the north and south. A pool (a) was located in the center of the garden with a semi-circular extension on the east end and two small marble posts which probably...

Casadetta del Genio

This house was partially excavated in 1829-1830 and again in 1850. The portico had a floor on the east slightly lower than the sections on the north and south. A pool (a) was located in the center of the garden with a semi-circular extension on the east end and two small marble posts which probably...

Forum Baths

555.VI.1/7/8/10. During 1873-1875 the courtyard (a) of the palaestra was excavated. A section of the northeast portico was not excavated until 1930. The courtyard measured 15.75 x 25.25 m. and was bounded by the portico on the west, north and east sides. Engaged columns stood along the south. This ...

Bakery with Dwelling Rooms (V.iv.1.)

This house was excavated in 1900 and a small garden (a) was found to the east of the atrium. A masonry planting bed on the north, east and south walls (0.32 m. high, 0.25 m. wide) was shortened on the south to leave room for the cistern puteal that stood in the southwestern corner. A podium (0.60 x...

Casa Delle Origini di Roma; House of M. Fabius Secundus (V.iv.13.)

This house with an unusual design had a garden (a) in the rear southwest corner that was separated from a courtyard to the north by a low masonry wall. Between the garden wall and the wall of the house a gutter was formed which directed the roof run off into a cistern. A marble garden herm was foun...

Casa Delle Origini di Roma; House of M. Fabius Secundus (V.iv.13.)

This house with an unusual design had a garden (a) in the rear southwest corner that was separated from a courtyard to the north by a low masonry wall. Between the garden wall and the wall of the house a gutter was formed which directed the roof run off into a cistern. A marble garden herm was foun...

House of M. Lucretius Fronto (V.iv.a/11)

A. Immediately to the south of the rear door to the tablinium, excavated in 1900, was a very small garden (a) with a low wall on the north end. A gutter bordered the garden on the west, north and east sides. The cubiculum (c) on the south side of the atrium had garden representations on the east an...

House of M. Lucretius Fronto (V.iv.a/11)

A. Immediately to the south of the rear door to the tablinium, excavated in 1900, was a very small garden (a) with a low wall on the north end. A gutter bordered the garden on the west, north and east sides. The cubiculum (c) on the south side of the atrium had garden representations on the east an...

V.iv.3

At the rear of this house excavated in 1899 was a courtyard garden (a) with a portico on the south. This was supported by one column that was reinforced by a large pillar. The garden was enclosed by a low wall with an opening on the south. A gutter that encircled the edges had a settling basin (0.3...

V.iv.3

At the rear of this house excavated in 1899 was a courtyard garden (a) with a portico on the south. This was supported by one column that was reinforced by a large pillar. The garden was enclosed by a low wall with an opening on the south. A gutter that encircled the edges had a settling basin (0.3...

V.iv.a/11

B. At the rear of this house a peristyle garden (b) was bordered on the south by a portico. Three columns and an engaged column, stuccoed and fluted on the top, red at the bottom, supported the portico. A large animal painting occupied three walls of the peristyle garden with a bold checkerboard ab...

V.iv.a/11

B. At the rear of this house a peristyle garden (b) was bordered on the south by a portico. Three columns and an engaged column, stuccoed and fluted on the top, red at the bottom, supported the portico. A large animal painting occupied three walls of the peristyle garden with a bold checkerboard ab...

V.iv.b.

When the excavation work reached the northeast corner of this house in 1901, a small garden (a) with a proportionately small portico supported by two masonry columns was found. The major part of the garden was occupied by the masonry triclinium (l. medius, 3.00 m.; l. imus and. summus 2.69 m.) with...

V.iv.c.

Wooden steps at the rear of this house excavated in 1902 led up to a viridarium (a) confined by a low masonry wall. A cistern had been walled up and the garden was built over the cistern mouth and a paved courtyard. Water from the neighbor’s roof (no.13) supplied the cistern. The east and south wal...

House H (Maison H)

This house, the largest in insula III (lots 2,3,4,9,10), rivals the House of the Cascade in size and richness of mosaics (Plan view, Fig.1). A semicircular basin extended into the garden on the S and E sides, each decorated with a marine scene. Images Fig.1: Plan of the House H. Photo courtesy of...

House of Africa (Maison de l'Afrique)

This vast house (3000 m2) was laid out around a peristyle garden (Plan view, Fig.1). The sunken garden was enclosed by a low wall that curved to form a semi-circular basin in-between the third and fourth column to which was adjoined a euripus at the end of which a rectangular platform supported eit...

House of Baklouti (Maison de Baklouti)

The peristyle garden enclosed by a portico on four sides had a long basin, which was concave at one end, and had semicircular and rectangular niches. It occupied the central axis of the garden. The bottom was paved with mosaic. The semicircular pool extending into the garden on the E side was also ...

House of Icarios (Maison d'Icarios)

This richly decorated house is considered as one of the most remarkable domus of Africa (Plan view, Fig.1). Twenty-four Corinthian columns that may have reached 3m high, supported a portico on four sides. On the North, the South and the West, the peristyle is surrounded by rooms and apartments, som...

House of Icarios (Maison d'Icarios)

This richly decorated house is considered as one of the most remarkable domus of Africa (Plan view, Fig.1). Twenty-four Corinthian columns that may have reached 3m high, supported a portico on four sides. On the North, the South and the West, the peristyle is surrounded by rooms and apartments, som...

House of the Cascade (Maison de la Cascade)

This house, the largest in the insula II (lots 2,3,8,9,10), was given its present form in the second century. A large peristyle with elaborate viridarium dominated the S part of the house (Plan view, Fig.1). The large shallow pool in the center of the garden occupied a rectangular area that was lar...

House of the Dolphins (Maison des dauphins)

The house was laid out around a large persityle garden of twenty-two columns (20 x15.5 m) that had a euripus and a semicircular basin facing a large reception room (Plan view, Fig.1) Maps Images Fig. 1: Plan of the House of Lucius Verus. Photo courtesy of Wilhelmina F. Jashemski.(Rights statement...

House of the Dolphins (Maison des dauphins)

The vast house (3000-3500 m2) is laid out around a large peristyle garden (Plan view, Fig.1). The large sunken garden (X, 16 x 16.25 m) was enclosed by a low wall (0.70 m high) and had a large semicircular basin (dia. 3.10 m) between the fifth and the sixth column facing a reception room (XXV). A r...

House of the Figured Basins (Maison aux bassins figurés)

The house was located in the insula III. The rectangular courtyard, in the SW corner on the axis of the great hall (XI), paved during the last period may have been a garden earlier (Plan view, Fig.1). It had a semicircular basin with a geometric design in the bottom. The wall and the brim were figu...

House of the Grand Oecus (Maison du grand oecus)

This house is the most important dwelling discovered to date at Utica. The large peristyle garden (XXVII), enclosed by a portico on four sides (XXVIII-XXX) had a long basin concave at each end down the center of the garden (Plan view, Fig. 1). The bottom was paved with a simple mosaic. The semicirc...

House of the Peacock (Maison du Paon)

This large house (1800 m2) adjacent to the domus of Sollertiana on the N had a large peristyle garden (XIII, 10.50 x 13.20 m) enclosed on four sides by a portico (XIV-XVII) of 18 columns that were connected by a low wall (Plan view, Fig.1). A semicircular basin facing the large oecus on the N, exte...

House of the Treasure (Maison au trésor)

The House is located in the insula II (Lots 1,7). The peristyle garden had a semicircular basin extending from the two middle columns on the S side, facing the triclinium (XVII) during the first century AD (Plan view, Fig.1). When the house was substantially altered in the second century the enlarg...

House of the Triumph of Neptune (Maison du Triomphe de Neptune)

The Asklepeia monument, so-called from a mosaic inscription, is located to the northeast of the House of the Muses. (Plan view, Fig. 1) This building is divided into three sections: the central building, the northeast sector and the private baths. The central building, probably a house, presents an...

House of the Triumph of Neptune (Maison du Triomphe de Neptune)

The house, noteworthy for its many and varied mosaic floors, is located on the right side of Oum El Abid river in a residential neighborhood. This vast domus is laid out around a peristyle onto which the rooms open. The courtyard (6.50 x 6.50 m) may have been planted (Plan view, Fig. 1). A long bas...

House of the West (Maison de l'est)

The peristyle garden (V) has a rectangular basin with curved angles extending from two middle columns on the W side, facing the triclinium (XI) (Plan view, Fig.1). The house is dated to the II c. Maps Images Fig.1: Plan of the House of the West. Photo courtesy of Wilhelmina F. Jashemski. Dates ...

House of the White Mosaic (Maison des mosaïques blanches)

This house located E of the House of the Dolphins, has a small sunken peristyle garden (VI, 6.35 x 7 m) 60 cm lower than the level of the portico and bordered by a low wall (Plan view, Fig.1). Maps Images Fig.1: Plan of the house of the White Mosaic. Photo courtesy of Wilhelmina F. Jashemski.(Rig...

Insula II, lot 4

The peristyle courtyard is destroyed today, but there is soil in it (View plan, Fig.1). It may have been originally planted. Maps Plans Fig.1: Plan of the of the peristyle, Insula II, lot 4. Photo courtesy of Wilhelmina F. Jashemski. Dates the I-II century. Bibliography CMT, Utique, Les Mosaïq...

Sollertianna Domus

This large house (1120 m2) at the periphery of the SW quarter was laid out around a peristyle garden (VII, 8.20x11.30 m) enclosed on four sides by a portico of 14 columns that connected by a low wall (Plan view, Fig.1). A semicircular basin extended into the garden 75cm lower than the level of the ...

House of the Fishpond

In the course of the second century, some two meters of fill was added to the garden to bring it up to the same level as the rest of the house. The use of the space was completely inverted. Rooms were built on the filled-in garden, and the former house was torn down to become a garden. This new hou...

Tomb Garden of Anonymous

A highly fragmentary inscription found in the south part of the Cayster River valley records the dedication of a piece of landed property apparently attached to a heroon. The tomb is not explicitly mentioned with the property in the surviving text (kayi°[rvsen d¢ k¢ kt∞ma ?t]Ú prosÚn t“ [≤r–ƒ]) but...

Tomb Garden of Anonymous

A broken inscription found near Thyaira in 1901 records the second part of a funerary dedication in which the dedicant prescribes who can be buried in his monument and forbids anyone “to sell this tomb or the garden (peribÒlion) in front of it with the crematory in it oÈk §j°stai d¢ oÈden[‹] pvl∞sa...

Tomb Garden of Bassos son of Euarestos

A statue base found in 1886 in a modern cemetery midway along the path between Gueuktché-Ahmed and Seldjikli preserves, on its front, a decree of the local senate and people at Attaleia passed, probably, some time during the second century honoring Bassus and his father Euarestos for their demonstr...

Tomb Garden of Papias son of Adrastos

A marble slab found immured in a house wall at Hisarköy (Attouda) in Caria near the border with Phrygia records an epitaph set up by Papias, the son of Adrastos, grandson of Zeuxis, great grandson of Kounbarion, for himself and his heirs and sets aside a plot of unencumbered land six cubits square ...

Aphrodisias (Lelégōn Pólis,Megálē Pólis, Ninóē, Stauroúpolis)

An inscription (MAMA VIII, 448) indicates that Artemidorus Pedias, during his term as strategos, promised to “adorn a palm grove with a statue of Hermes, and a gilded Aphrodite with Erotes holding lamps on either side and a marble Eros in Front” (Roueché, 70.) The location of this garden is not spe...

Villa del Cortijo de los Vila

Excavations in 1985 and 1986 brought to light a villa dating to the end of the third or beginning of the fourth century AD. The villa is also known as the “Finca del Moral.” Measures were taken to preserve the fine mosaics. In the peristyle of the villa there was a rectangular garden area [A] with ...

*Domus* of the Place Epars

A large reception room of 73 square meters in the northwest corner was heated by a hypocaust under the floor. In this room was a grand composition depicting a procession of people. Next to this room was a square room that looked out down the long axis of the garden that filled the 247 square meter ...

House with Pilasters (Clos du Verbe Incarné)

The insula VII of the Clos du Verbe Incarné, excavated from 1977 to 1987, lies on the western slope of a little dip (71 x 34 m) in the upper town, about 160 meters northwest of the center of the top of the theater. In this insula, begun between 40 and 20 BC, one can follow the evolution of this qua...

Rural Villa in Winden Am See

The modest house of this villa rustica is of the so-called corridor type, a type common in the region and already seen at Carnuntum (Fig. 1). It was built around 100 A.D. and occupied until the 4th century. On the southeast of the house was a vestibule, from which a central corridor departed at a 9...

Tomb Garden of Iul(ia) Victorin(a) in Scarbantia

A limestone funerary stele of probably third century date unearthed in 1973 near Scarbantia at Winder am See (Burgenland) and now in the Burgenländische Landesmuseum at Eisenstadt records an epitaph set up by Septimius Alcides, a veteran of the legio XIII Gemina Iulia, for his wife, Iul(ia) Victori...

Tomb Garden of Fl(avius) Dalmatius in Savaria

A limestone slab found near the monastery of St. Martin in Szombathely (Savaria), Hungary, in 1845 and subsequently transferred to the National Museum in Budapest records the epitaph of a high ranking equestrian official (vir perfectissimus), Fl(avius) Dalmatius, and his wife Aur(elia) Iulia, who s...

Rural Villa in Eisenstadt

The residence of this villa rustica was entered on the southeast by a portico (Fig. 1). After passing through a room interpreted as the atrium, one arrived in the open courtyard which had a peristyle on three sides (G on plan). On the northern edge of the courtyard was a podium (P on plan) near whi...

Urban Houses in Carnuntum

The regional house type found often in Pannonia, the so-called corridor house, is characterized by a vestibule or arcade on its narrow front and a central corridor running the length of the house, separating it into two parts. One of these houses (B on plan) on a street corner in Carnuntum exhibits...

Urban House or Schola in Aquincum

Very few houses of Mediterranean type have been discovered, and only one can be said with certainty to have had a garden (Fig. 1, G in Fig. 1). The peristyle courtyard was a prominent feature of this house of irregular plan and substantial size near the southern city wall. The house dates to the 3r...

Rural Villa in Winkel-Seeb

The residential and service parts of this villa rustica occupied an area of ca. 7 hectares. The lateral walls of the complex could be followed over a length of 395 meters, but it is assumed that they once extended up to the lake southeast of the farm. The house, measuring 56.70 x 82.40 meters, was ...

Rural Villa in Wiesbaden-Biebrich

Only the residential part of this farm has been excavated. The house with a width of 22 meters had two protruding wings at the south. To the west of the house was an area of irregular proportions enclosed by a wall, and this has been interpreted as a kitchen garden (G in Fig. 1). Plans Fig. 1: Pl...

Structures under the Collège Lumière in Vesontio

The results of the 2004 excavation at the Collège Lumière are still under study and the data are therefore still partial. This zone, close to the river and the artisinal quarter has, in the past, yielded most of the mosaics recorded for Besançon. The ancient structures discovered on 3000 square met...

House in the Rue du Palais de Justice in Vesontio

In 2000-2001, at the time of construction a new judiciary facility, an area of 2000 square meters was excavated at the center of this loop. The results are in large part unpublished. On land that had been occupied since the end of the second century BC, two houses of perishable materials were built...

Villa in Vallon (Sur Dompierre, Canton de Fribourg, Switzerland)

Located 6km south-east of Avenches/ Aventicum, the capital of the Helvetian tribe, this site is situated on a small alluvial terrace at the bottom of a hillside. The area is bordered by a stream, the Laret, characterized by a flow, sometimes torrential, that has fluctuated during the past centuries...

Rural Villa in Orbe

This large palatial house belonged to a villa rustica revealed by excavation and aerial photography. The enclosed farmyard is calculated to have been approximately 420 x 650 meters in size. The house itself, built in the mid-1st century AD and in use until the 4th century, was 200 meters long (Fig....

Rural Villa in Oberentfelden

The enclosed area of this villa rustica was 160 meters wide and at least 460 meters long; the eastern limits of the complex have not yet been found. The main residence and bath complex (A and B in Fig. 1), dating to the beginning of the 2nd century, stood on sloping land eight meters higher than th...

Rural Villa in Hummetroth

The enclosed farmyard, including the residential area (pars urbana) and the service zone with outbuildings and working areas (pars rustica), covered an area of 3.5 hectares. The house of this villa rustica of the 2nd century is of the winged corridor type with two protruding wings framing a large c...

Tomb Garden of Ti. Claudios Lykos

A limestone sarcophagus found at Thessaloniki and first reported in 1962 preserves an epitaph set up in 147 A.D. by Ti. Claudios Lykos, a local town counselor (bouleutÆw), for himself, his loving wife Meinoukia (Minucia) Theoprepes, and his two daughters Roda and Theoprepes. As Robert correctly obs...

Rural Villa in Friedberg Pfingstweide

This villa rustica was situated on the northern slope of a valley through which a stream ran. The enclosed area of the farm occupied an area of 3.4 hectares (180 x 190 meters), and it was divided into a residential part (pars urbana) and a service area (pars rustica) by a road running east-west (Fi...

Rural Villa in Ferpicloz

The house of this villa rustica was of the winged corridor type (A in Fig. 1) with a porticoed facade (Fig. 1). Attached to the eastern end of the house, measuring 37 x 46 meters, was a wall running east-west which has been interpreted as the protective wall of a garden (G in Fig. 1). Plans Fig. ...

Rural Villa in Dietikon

This villa rustica complex was built on a site at the bottom of a valley near and parallel to the river Limmat. Dietikon was situated on an important land and water traffic route from the Bündner Alps to Vindonissa and further north to the Rhine. Recent excavations supply valuable evidence for a ga...

Rural Villa in Bad Kreuznach

This villa, almost 6000 square meters in size, gives eloquent testimony to the wealth and status of the owner of the rural estate. The estate was built in the second half of the 2nd century and occupied until its destruction around 275. The three-storied villa with more than 50 rooms on the ground ...

House in Insula 16 in Aventicum

In Insula 16 East, northeast of the forum, were small shops and houses belonging to three different owners. These were demolished when the town was promoted to the status of colonia by Vespasian. The new house occupied the whole insula and was entered on the northeast. In the middle of the insula w...

Cemetery Garden of Metrodorus

A sarcophagus found at Salona in 1824, transported to the museum in Split, and subsequently lost bore an inscription recording the donation by Aur(elius) Aprilianus to Aur(elius) Amurus and Aur(elia) Quinta of a sarcophagus “which is in the garden of Metrodorus” and specifying that it was put into ...

House in Insula 13 in Aventicum

Recent excavations in Insula 13 on the northwestern edge of the town have uncovered the remains of two large and luxurious houses separated from each other by a narrow corridor. They date to the late 1st century and were occupied until the middle of the 3rd century. Both buildings had a length of 6...

Tomb Garden with Monument of Julia Mutiana

An inscription reported among those of Salona records an epitaph set up by Iulia Mutiana for herself and her husband Aur(elius) Pateas in a place granted her by A. Aelius Marullinus “among the sarcophagi in the middle in the garden, near the road, overlooking the old (?) courtyard (or seed bed)” (i...

Tomb Garden and Pool of Cingius Iustinus

A rock cut inscription at Salonae ...

A rock cut inscription at Salonae marks the spot where some time in the late second or third century Cingius Iustinus made a fishpond or pool (piscina) in the garden of his wife Aelia Licinia for her and for himself (fecit piscinam in horto Aeliae Liciniae coiugi incomparabili et sibi). No tomb is ...

Palatial House in Insula 7 in Aventicum

The remains of a palatial house (Palais de Derrière la Tour) were recently uncovered in excavations on the western edge of the city in an area characterized by luxurious domestic dwellings (Fig. 1). The house in its final state, from the Severan period to the middle of the 3rd century, had a perist...

House in Insula 30 in Augusta Raurica

Insula 30, east of the central baths, was taken up by a single house built around 200 AD. This replaced several earlier structures on the site. The insula, including the street colonnades, had an overall area of ca. 48 x 60 meters. The house had a peristyle courtyard of rectangular shape which was ...

House in Insula 1 and 2 in Augusta Raurica

This house, built on sloping terrain on the northern edge of the city around AD 150, was enlarged twenty years later to incorporate at least two certain gardens (Fig. 1). It bordered north and south on streets and was flanked on the east and west by other houses. In this last phase after ca. 170, t...

Large Building North of Forum in Arae Flaviae

This building ca. 95 meters in width consisted of several units built at different times. These may represent more than one house, or they may be parts of one large house. The southern part of the complex, entered from the colonnaded street on the west, had a vestibule or corridor leading into a pe...

Tomb Garden of Anonymous Gaul in Andematunnum

A famous inscription from the territory of the Lingonian Gauls (Langres) known only from a manuscript of the tenth century records the will of a local hunting enthusiast who built for himself a lavish mausoleum (cella memoriae) and equipped it with orchards (pomaria) and a reservoir (lacus) put in ...

Rural villa at Voerendaal

The stone-built structures of this villa rustica near the Meuse river, the largest excavated thus far in the Netherlands, were erected in the early 2nd century and repeatedly enlarged until the abandonment of the farm around 300 A.D. (Plan 1). The total area of the farm, including the cultivated la...

Legionary Houses at Castra Vetera (Germania Inferior)

In the Neronian fort of the 5th and 15th legions near the civilian settlement of Colonia Ulpia Traiana were two vast buildings on either side of the headquarters building (principia). These were the residences, or praetoria, of the two legionary commanders. The western palatial complex was 76-77 m....

Rustic villa at Rheinbach-Flerzheim

There was no division between the residential and service parts of this modest farm. The house, with its bath (A and B on plan), and the outbuildings were built of stone at the beginning of the 2nd century (Plan 1). The winged corridor type house of this villa rustica was 37 m. long and 20 m. wide,...

Niederzier Hambach 59

This farm, known as Hambach 59, was built in the late 1st century A.D. and inhabited until its destruction in the 4th century (Plan 1). The farmhouse, 19.50 x 26 m. in size (A on plan), occupied a position in the northern part of the complex, and looked out on the rest of the farm to the south wher...

Niederzier Hambach 69

This villa rustica was situated west of Cologne in the same region as Hambach 59. It was built in the late 1st century A.D. and inhabited until the 4th century (Plan 1). The farm had a calculated overall area, including the cultivated land, of 50 hectares. The farm compound itself was one hectare i...

Rural Villa at Neerhaaren-Rekem

The facade of this modest house of a villa rustica near the Meuse river measured 24 m. in length and had two protruding wings joined by a portico (Plan 1). The house was built in the late 1st century A.D. There is evidence for an arbor or pergola next to the house in the form of two rows of posthol...

The Houses of Insula 7 in Colonia Ulpia Traiana

Between the buildings were open areas, some paved and equipped with ovens and pottery kilns, wells and latrines, others unpaved. Some of the small courtyards have been reconstructed by the excavators as kitchen gardens and shrine gardens (Image 1). Organic material from a well in this insula includ...

Urban House on Lungenstrasse

In the second half of the 1st century A.D. a large peristyle house was constructed on the western fringe of the city, built on the remains of abandoned pottery kilns. The peristyle courtyard of the house was at least 13 x 21 m. in size, but the structural remains were badly damaged when a temple co...

Urban House on Wolfsstrasse

Only a fraction of this house in the immediate vicinity of the House on Gertrudenstraße was excavated. Enough was salvaged, however, to be able to recognize that the house was of the peristyle type (Plan 1). The house was built after the middle of the 1st century A.D. By the mid-4th century the bui...

Urban House on Gertrudenstrasse

This Mediterranean-type house just inside the western city wall had a peristyle courtyard ca. 9 x 14 m. in size, in the middle of which was a pool (3 x 8 m.) with apsidal ends (P on Plan 1). The courtyard was unpaved, and the presence of a source of water suggests that it was designed as a garden (...

Tomb Garden of Ael(ius) Iul(ius) Iulianus, Decurion in Romula

A slab unearthed near Resça (Romula), Romania, in 1954 records a verse epitaph set up by Valeria Gemellina for her husband Ael(ius) Iul(ius) Iulianus, a decurion of the colony of Romula, some time probably in the later second or third century. In it she describes in pastoral terms well suited to th...

Rural Villa in Sudeley/Spoonley Wood

The main residence of this rural estate in Gloucestershire, excavated in 1882, is of the winged corridor type (Fig. 1). From the north and south corners of the house, walls ran in a westerly direction to enclose an open courtyard (G in Fig. 1) approximately 65 meters wide and 45 meters deep from th...

Byzantine Law Court and Roof Garden

Byzantine Law Court and Roof Garden Architectural analysis and epigraphic finds excavated by Josef Patrich and the Combined Caesarea Excavations suggest that the buildings in the area immediately south of the harbor (Area CC) formed a governmental compound of Roman - Byzantine Caesarea, comprising ...

Herodian First Palace

Herodian First Palace Herod may have been a regular guest at the Hasmonean palace during his boyhood. Even after he effected his rule in 37 B.C., the Hasmoneans retained possession of their winter palace for a few years, according to Josephus. Artistobulus III was drowned there by Herod’s men when ...

Herodian Second Palace

Herodian Second Palace The earthquake of 31 B.C. destroyed the Hasmonean palace complex, and the political changes that took place after Actium enabled Herod to gain full possession of the winter palaces. On top of the ruined palaces, he built a new complex (Fig 8). The two pools of the Pool Comple...

Herodian Third Palace Corinthian Peristyle

Corinthian Peristyle With porticoes on three sides and measuring 23 x 14.5m, this courtyard, known as area B55, is decorated with columns in the Corinthian order. (Fig. 16) The lower portions of these smooth stucco shafts alternate between red and black; above them the columns are of fluted white s...

Herodian Third Palace Ionic Peristyle

Ionic Peristyle This peristyle courtyard (19.1 x 18.7) lies adjacent to the banquet hall and near Roman baths constructed in opus reticulatum. It is referred to in excavation reports as area B64. The central garden is surrounded on three sides by a colonnade of cemented stone, stuccoed in white and...

Herodian Third Palace Sunken Garden

Sunken Garden The monumental ‘sunken garden’ (B6), which measures 37.27 x 113.67m, lies largely unexcavated on the south side of Wadi Qelt, in alignment with the buildings and gardens described above (Fig 17). First explored in 1950 by Kelso and Baramki and again by Netzer in 1979, its perimeter is...

Herod’s Tomb Garden

Herod’s Tomb Garden In 2005, Netzer’s team found the long-sought tomb of Herod, positioned on a terrace constructed into the slope of the artificial hill. This terrace was constructed of chipped stone and construction debris, largely the light limestone of the area. To the front and sides of the to...

Lower Herodium

Lower Herodium Lower Herodium (Fig. 1C) comprises several units. Here the central focus is the large pool, the water of which was supplied by a 6 km long aqueduct built by Herod from the spring at the modern village of Artas. The pool is set into a huge garden terrace 120 X 110 m. in size. It was c...

Palace Fortress

Palace Fortress The Palace Fortress is a cylindrical structure originally seven stories high (two vaulted corridors in the substructure and five stories of corridors each having its floors supported on wooden beams). In the open interior of the cylinder, palace quarters were designed with luxurious...

Palace of John Hyrcanus I

Palace of John Hyrcanus I Erected on the southern margin of the royal estate around 120 B.C., north of Wadi Qelt, the palace has not yet been studied in its entirety, since at a later stage most of it was buried (Fig 2 area AA). At its center lay a courtyard measuring (25 x 18m) flanked by rooms on...

Pool Complex of Alexander Janneaus

Pool Complex of Alexander Janneaus The ascent to the throne of Alexander Jannaeus in 103 B.C. triggered a significant development in the above palace. He constructed another conduit from the “Auja and Na’aran” springs to the north of the palace site, which improved the gardens and bathing facilitie...

Promontory Palace of Herod the Great

Promontory Palace of Herod the Great A seaside palace west of the theater at Caesarea Maritima has been identified by E. Netzer as the maritime palace Herod the Great built to supervise construction of the great harbor, and, later, to provide reception space for guests at spectacles and official fu...

Ramat Hanadiv

Probable garden soils have been identified in a partially excavated palatial complex from the Herodian period. (Fig. 1) The fortified residential complex is a huge square covering an area of over 5,000 square meters. Towers stood in the four corners of the precinct, which thus appears to have been ...

Rural Villa in Latimer

Excavations at this country house in Buckinghamshire have produced evidence for gardens adjacent to the main residence in its latest phase dating to the beginning of the 4th century (Fig. 1). The house at the west is of the winged corridor type, fronted by a large courtyard bisected by a paved cent...

Twin Palaces of Alexandra Salome and Late Hasmonean Gardens

Twin Palaces of Alexandra Salome and Late Hasmonean Gardens The trend toward formal gardens and swimming pools at the palace complex gained new expression during the reign of Janneaus’ widow, 76 to 32 B.C.E. Two identical structures built at this time, sharing a common wall, appear to have housed h...

Rural Villa in Gorhambury

At this site in Hertfordshire near the town of Verulamium (St. Albans) excavations have revealed a multi-phased Roman farm, characterized in late Iron Age and Roman times by an outer courtyard with various service buildings and an inner courtyard in which the farm house stood (Fig. 1). An avenue 20...

Rural Estate in Gatcombe

This site of a large rural estate about 9 hectares in size in Somerset is enclosed within a massive wall (Fig.1). Although the site was not completely excavated, there is evidence to suggest that the main residence (A in Fig. 1) was located at the southern end of the complex, separated from various...

Rural Villa in Frocester Court

This Roman villa in Gloucestershire is situated about 14 miles west of the civitas capital Corinium Dobunnorum (Cirencester). The main residence is of the winged corridor type, fronted by a large courtyard which was bounded by the house on one side, by a wall on the two sides perpendicular to the h...

Roman Palace in Fishbourne

Fishbourne Roman Palace was accidentally discovered during the digging of a water main trench in 1960. The discovery led to nine seasons of excavations (1961-69) that showed the site had developed from a military base at the time of the Roman invasion in AD 43 to a sumptuous palace by the end of th...

Atrium House

West of the House of Dionysos stood the so-called “atrium house” which covered an area of 1400 sq. m. (Plan 1). It was built around the middle of the 1st century A.D. Entering from the colonnaded street at the west, one passed through a room reconstructed as an atrium, continuing along ...

House of Dionyius

The largest urban villa excavated thus far in Cologne is the House of Dionysos (3400 sq. m.), named after the early 3rd century mosaic floor decorated with Dionysiac motifs in the triclinium (Image 1??). The house occupies part of an insula in the northeastern corner of the city, bordered on the so...

Rural Villa in Eccles

This country estate in modern Kent possessed a large ornamental pool (P in Fig. 1) in the area in front of the main residence (A in Fig. 1) and to the east of the attached bath house (Fig. 1). The masonry pool measuring 25 x 3.50 meters lay parallel to the house frontage. From the pool ran a masonr...

Funerary grove of T. Aemilius Vetus

A grey limestone block found in 1975 at La Alameda, about 41 kilometers south of Ciudad Real, and now preserved in the Museo Provinciale di Ciuidad Real records the dedication of a funerary grove (lucus) by Minicia Saturnina for her son T. Aemilius Vetus, who died at age thirty-five sometime in the...

Rustic villa at Blankenheim-Hülchrath

This villa rustica was built on a slope so that the residential building (A on Plan 1) overlooked the rest of the lower lying farmyard (Image 1). The entire complex covered an area 120 m. in width and 250 m. in length (3 hectares). The house was separated from a large open area behind and to the so...

Villa Dehesa de Soria

The villa was first excavated in 1928-9.(Ampu More than 22 rooms were paved with mosaics for a total area of 1,400 square meters of mosaic. Made of local stones, they date from the second century AD. Among them is a rare picture of a crown of shafts a grain, a symbol of agricultural fertility. This...

Rural Villa in Darenth

Excavations at this site of a Roman villa in Kent uncovered a large rectangular masonry pool in the courtyard, which was enclosed by buildings on the north, west, and east (Fig. 1). The villa buildings took up an area of 150 x 225 meters in total, including the courtyard with a width of 26.5 meters...

Tomb Painting in Chester

Toynbee’s suggestion that a military tombstone from Chester depicting a row of three gabled buildings with stylized trees or shrubs planted in front of the two at the sides perhaps represents a tomb garden with tomb and flanking funerary buildings, though plausible, cannot in itself be taken to sho...

Rural Villa in Chedworth

This Roman villa in Gloucestershire was partially excavated in the late 19th century, but only the built features and their mosaic floors appear to have been of interest to the Victorian diggers. Excavations in the courtyard conducted between 2000 and 2002 revealed that earlier excavators had not d...

Rural Villa in Bancroft

Excavations between 1983 and 1986 at this site in Buckinghamshire revealed a Roman villa of the winged corridor type, which was built in the late 3rd century and rebuilt and enlarged in the mid-4th century (Fig.1). From the two projecting wings of the house at the northeast and southeast two walls ...

Suburban Gardens in Camulodunum

Outside the walls of the city, utilitarian gardens were planted, possibly in the 3rd century, in allotments along the road leading to the Balkerne Gate. Upon the widening of the defensive ditch at the foot of the walls around AD 275, a thick dump of soil was deposited on these garden allotments, pr...

Acropolis Palace at Jebel Khalid

It is apparent that there was once a large limestone outcrop within the Acropolis at the highest point of the Jebel range, providing panoramic views of the Euphrates valley (figs. 3 and 4: overall plan of the site and ground plan of Acropolis palace). This outcrop was quarried to a rough level terr...

Agora of the Italians, Delos

The Agora of the Italians, with a size of some 6,000 square meters, is situated prominently in the center of Delos, between the famous sanctuary of Apollo to the south and the Sacred Lake to the north. The design of the Agora centers on a vast courtyard with four double-storied porticoes enclosing ...

East Temple (Temple de l'Est)

A strip of soil bordered most of the long sides of the temple and the mosaic paving in front of it (Plan view, Fig. 1). Preliminary excavations in 1990 in a strip 1m wide at the front of the garden, on the left, yielded a row of root cavities approximately 15cm in diameter and 50-70cm apart suggest...

Fontao Villa

The remains of a large villa were discovered in 1900 under an abandoned Benedictine monastery. Among the structures identified are several basins that are usually found in gardens. The villa dates to the late empire. Maps Plans Images Pleiades ID 532133456 Publication date 20 November 2020...

House of Bacchus and Ariadne (Maison de Bacchus et Ariane)

This large house, occupying most of an insula (excavated in l925), dates in its present form from the early fifth century. The SW part of the house was devoted to business, the production of olive oil. The rooms on the NE side of the residence area were arranged around a peristyle garden. The mosai...

House of Neptune (Maison de Neptune)

The house was laid out around a peristyle garden (V-VIII), with four porticos supported by twelve columns. A low wall separated the porticos from the garden (Plan view, Fig. 1). A semicircular basin extended into the garden between the second and the third columns on the SE side. The cistern openin...

House of Nicentus (Maison de Nicentus)

The house is adjacent to the E angle of the Forum at the back of the Curia. It was laid out around a peristyle garden (VII- X- VI) of 12 columns (Plan view, Fig. 1). A low wall separated the porticos from the garden. Two semicircular pools projected into the garden; they were located in the axis of...

House of Omnia Tibia Felicia (Maison Omnia Tibi Felicia)

The center of this house is occupied by a little court with a portico; the impluvium in the middle of the court is enclosed by a low wall with a depression in the top for soil and plants (Plan view, Fig. 1). Maps Images CAPTION Dates I-II Centuries Bibliography C. Poinssot, Les ruines de Dougg...

House of the Cantaber

Hidacio, bishop of Chaves and a chronicler of his age, records that the Suevi sacked Conimbriga in 465 and 468 A.D. and that in the second year “the most noble Cantaber” was killed and his family sold into slavery. This house is by far the finest inside the city walls, so it is reasonably guessed t...

House of the Fountains

This house is almost entirely excavated, the exception being its north facade, which is still covered by a local lane. It occupies an area of almost 3400 square meters. Its mosaics, published in their entirety, date from the second half of the second century A.D, or the Severan era. The constructio...

House of the Palms (Maison des Palmes)

A semicircular basin was installed at a later date over the mosaic in the NW portico at the edge of what was perhaps a small garden (Plan View, Fig. 1). Maps Images TITLE Dates The house dates from the beginning of the IIIrd century. Bibliography Thuburbo Majus, Les mosaïques de la région du F...

House of the Protome (Maison des Protomés)

This very large house on the western edge of the site had two sectors, the Trifolium area and the Protome area (Plan view, Fig. 1). The Trifolium sector, was laid out around a peristyle garden (II-V, I) enclosed on four sides by a portico of 12 columns. The garden, 35 cm lower than the level of the...

House of the Skeletons

The peristyle garden of the fourth domus follows a different pattern. In contrast to the House of the Swastika Mosaic, this house is very squarely centered on the garden. The axis of the entrance bisects the garden and the triclinium on the other side. A shallow rill with a small exedra on this axi...

House of the Swastika Mosaic

Far more modest than the House of Cantaber but following the same general ideas of garden design, this house was left outside the new city wall built during the late empire. The mosaics, now in excellent condition after modern restoration, can be dated to the mid third century A.D., but the house i...

House of the Trussed Animals (Maison des animaux liés)

The house of the Trussed Animals is bordered on the E by the Baths of the Capitole. The house was laid out around a peristyle (V-VIII) (9x1.70 to1.80m) that enclosed a garden (IV) bounded by 8 columns. The large triclinium (XVIII), the oecus (XV) and the cubicula (IX, XVII) opened toward the garden...

House of the Two Fountains (Maison aux deux Fontaines)

This house in the W of the market may have had a peristyle garden enclosed by a portico on four sides; the possible garden had two shallow semicircular basins (Plan view, Fig.1). Maps Images CAPTION Dates Bibliography Pleiades_ID 315223 TGN ID 7017996 Contributors Wilhelmina F. Jashemski Amina-...

House of Venus (Maison de Venus)

The house of Venus is located at the S of the capitol and is adjacent to the temple of Caracalla’s victory. The house is laid out on two levels (Plan view, Fig. 1). The peristyle garden and the main reception rooms are located on the higher level. A large rectangular pool (V, 2.80x5.45m.) filled mo...

Imperial Residence at Batnae

The Emperor Julian described the imperial residence in Batnae in Syria in one of his letters to Libanius in 363 CE (Epist. 58). According to him, Batnae was thickly wooded with groves of cypress trees. The palace located there hardly seemed grand, but its garden was worthy of praise; Julian (Epist....

Kitchen and Commercial Gardens on Delos

The inscriptions of the sanctuary of Apollo mention nearly 30 kepoi within the period of 433 B.C. to 156/155 B.C., which were either private or belonged to Apollo and were rented or leased. Most of these cannot be localized because they were named after their former owners and with topographical re...

La Olmeda

The major building period dated to the beginning of the 4th century, supplanting an earlier late 1st century phase.. The peristyle garden belonged to the later phase. The house is laid out around its central garden with approximate symmetry relative its north-south axis. The front of the house, the...

Peristyle Gardens on Delos

In the Late Hellenistic houses of Delos the impluvia of peristyle courtyards were usually paved, and rainwater falling into these courtyards was emptied as wastewater by sewers into nearby streets. However, in two large houses (Quarter of the Theater, Insula II, Houses E and F) and two clubhouses o...

Peristyle Market (Marché)

The market located to the SW of the forum had a peristyle that enclosed an open space that may have been planted. With no evidence, Merlin suggested that the courtyard was paved with white mosaics but scholars do not agree. A large shade tree grows there today. Maps Images TITLE Dates Bibliogra...

Peristyle of the Petronii

The courtyard of this large peristyle to the NE of the Summer Baths, dedicated by Petronius and his sons, may have been planted with avenues of trees as recommended by Vitruvius, and as in the Palaetra at Pompeii (Pan view, Fig. 1). Maps Images Dates Bibliography CMT, Thuburbo Majus, Les mosaïques...

Private Houses at Antioch

The most significant finds from the international excavations conducted from 1932 to 1939 were the many houses built in and around the city center, on the surrounding terraces of the mountain slopes, in the suburb of Daphne, and in the port of Seleucia Pieria. Scores of floor mosaics dating from th...

Sacred Grove at Daphne

Antioch was most famous for its public gardens, such as the sacred grove of Daphne in the precinct of Apollo. The sanctuary was described by Strabo as a “large, thickly shaded grove intersected by fountain streams in the midst of which there is an asylum precinct and a temple of Apollo and Artemis”...

Shrine Complex in Insula E125

A few decades after a Nabataean shrine at Hawara (Roman Havarra) had been severely damaged during the Roman conquest of Arabia Petraea, the site’s inhabitants built another shrine at the same location. The Roman period shrine occupied the southeast corner of a multi-unit insula (E125), but could on...

Temple of Baalat (Temple de Balaat)

Only the central passage (III) way leading to the temple (IV) was paved. The rest of the courtyard (II), which was enclosed by a portico (I), was probably planted as in temple E (Plan view, Fig.1). Maps Images TITLE Dates Bibliography CMT, Thuburbo Majus, Les mosaïques de la région des Grands ...

Temple of Caelestis (Temple de Caelestis)

The marble causeway leading to the temple was bordered on each side with soil that was probably planted as in temple E (Plan view, Fig. 1). Maps Images TITLE Dates Bibliography CMT, Thuburbo Majus, Les mosaïques de la région des Grands Thermes, V. II, fasc.2, INA, Tunis, 1985, pp. 47-9, plan 9...

The gardens at the entrance of Hadrian's villa (Fig. 1, n. 3)

The Great Entrance Hall of Hadrian’s villa (Fig. 9) presents three gardens, two of which (Fig. 9, A and G) are peristyle ones. a – The main gate to the Hadrianic residence opens up on a peristyle garden, the largest one. Having just been excavated by Dr. Anna Maria Reggiani, the Latium’...

Theater (Theâtre)

At the rear of the theater is a xystis known from the dedication inscription (CIL VIII 26606, 26608) (Plan view, Fig.1). Maps Images CAPTION Dates The I-II centuries. Bibliography C. Poinssot, Les ruines de Dougga, Tunis, 1958, n°18, p. 53: plan, général n°18 Worldcat Pleiades_ID 315223 TGN I...

Tomb garden and baths of P. Caecil(ius) Rufus and Valeria

A marble slab found at Puçol (Puzol) near Saguntum, now lost, but originally preserving an epitaph of the late first or early second century set up by P. Caecil(ius) Rufus for himself and his wife Valeria, records that they purchased an area (locus) vaulted over with walls, baths (a notable amenity...

Tomb garden at Tyre

A tomb garden (Tomb Complex 15) has been found in a cemetery complex dating to the fourth century CE. (Fig. 1) Excavated by Maurice Chéhab, it features an enclosed garden (18x21 m) surrounded by a wall. The west wall supports a water channel which fed a rectangular basin in the apsidal hall and a l...

Tomb Garden of Flavius M. f. Quadratus

An inscription found immured in the corner of a house near Lisbon around 1735 records the epitaph of a standard bearer (aquilifer) of the second legion, [.] Flavius M. f. Quadratus, of the Galeria tribe, who made for himself a tomb monument with, it seems, a ‘circumvallation’ and a pavilion (cum mu...

Villa de Benicató

The first finds go back to 1883. Part of the site was acquired by the provincial government in 1954 and archaeological work was begun the next year, but the reports remain unpublished. The villa from the middle of the 2nd century evolved around a peristyle garden with a large circular pool, 7.6 met...

Villa de Hinojal

In the early 1970’s, J. M. Álvarez Martinez began excavations at this site, whose report appeared in 1976. The villa was built around a central open space (11.7 x 6.3 m), which the archaeologists initially assumed was a peristyle. There was indeed a wall (0.70 meters high and 0.55 meters thic...

Villa de La Cocosa

Rock is very scarce in this region, so it happened that sometime around 1940 workers removing stones from the ruined walls of this villa found the mosaic floor of the tepidarium. The owner informed the authorities in Badajoz, archaeologists were brought in, and the villa was fully excavated. A few ...

Villa de Milreu

The ruins of this villa are 0.9 km west of the center of Estoi. Strabo (3.2.5) mentions Ossonoba as a town on an estuary in this part of Lusitania. The Roman temple at the Milreu site, still standing to the springline of its vaults, always marked this spot as a Roman settlement, and many concluded ...

Villa de Torre de Palma

This villa was discovered by farm workers in 1947, and excavations were begun soon afterwards by the Museu Etnológico (now the Museu Arqueológico) in Lisbon. Hundreds of rooms were unearthed, and major mosaics and many crates of materials were removed to the museum. In 1983, American archaeologists...

Villa los Quintanares

Built in the second half of the 2nd century CE, it was destroyed during the invasions of the Franks after 256. Following the recovery of the Empire under Claudius II and Aurelian (268 -275), it was rebuilt and enlarged, surviving into the 5th century. Water was brought to the villa by a conduit fro...

Villa Sao Cucufate

This villa, which lies southeast of Lisbon, had multiple construction phases, investigated by J. Alarcão, R. Etienne, and F. Mayet. The key to distinguishing the first villa from the second turned out to be that the first was made of granite without mortar, while the second was built of schist. It ...