Porticus of Pompey

Completed in 55 BCE on the Campus Martius, the Porticus Pompeianae, or Porticus of Pompey, was Rome’s first public park (Plin. HN 37.6.13; Propertius 2.32.11 | Trans.; Vitruvius De Arch. 5.9.1). Funded by the eastern victories of the general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, the Porticus comprised a double n...

Mausoleum Augusti

The Mausoleum of Augustus was located in the northern Campus Martius between the Via Flaminia and the Tiber. The exact bounds of the park are unknown, but they stretched from north of the Mausoleum of Augustus to south of the Horologium and the Ara Pacis, which was located along the Via Flaminia. M...

Garden of the Flavian Imperial Palace

During the period of Domitian (81-96 CE), a large artificial platform with massive substructures at the north, east and west was completed at the site of the Vigna Barberini. On this platform stood a large structure with a curvilinear plan at the south, and with colonnaded aisles on the east and we...

The Garden of the Julio-Claudian Domus

At the end of the Republican era and the beginning of the Empire, residential dwellings occupied, at least in part, the northeastern corner of the Palatine. Two distinct excavation areas have revealed the partial remains of one or more domus in the southern part of the terrace, some 6.5 meters belo...

Vigna Barberini

The artificial terrace that now carries the Barberini family name is located on the northeastern corner of the Palatine, beyond the visible remains of the Flavian Imperial palace (Fig. 1). Excavations carried out during the 1930s by A. Bartoli, and in the 1950s by G.F. Carettoni concentrated primar...

Hercules Musarum

The Aedes Hercules Musarum was located in the southern Campus Martius. It was enclosed by the Porticus Philippi (61 x 92 m.) in the late Republican period. Known from several fragments of the Severan Marble Plan (Forma Urbis Romae), it was also adjacent (to the northwest) to the Porticus Octaviae (...

I.6.13 House of Stallus Eros

At the rear of this house a masonry wall surrounded the small garden which was undergoing extensive repairs at the time of the eruption. A lararium niche was located on the east wall and the rear wall held remnants of a garden painting. This painting was evidently in poor condition at the time of t...

I.6.8-9

This modest house had rooms opening off the small peristyle garden at the rear of the structure. The rooms had been remodeled to serve as a shop and at the time of the eruption, were in disrepair. Four columns, two of tufa, two of brick, supported the peristyle portico on the north and east sides a...

I.6.7 Fullonica of Stephanus

This house had been converted to a fullery and the small peristyle garden to the rear probably served as a drying area. Five pillars of the portico were connected by a low, marble topped wall. This enclosed the raised garden on the east, north and west sides with a deep gutter running around the ga...

I.6.4 House of the Lararium; Casa del Larario; Sabello Iliaco

A small garden was located at the rear of the tablinum accessed by a passageway from the atrium. A small pool (0.70 m. deep) was centered in the garden enclosed by a crudely built double wall with a space in between for flowers. At the time of the eruption the house was undergoing extensive repairs...

Thermae Agrippae

Knowledge of this thermae, or bathing complex, and its associated public gardens comes from textual evidence and the Severan Marble Plan (FUR) (Figs. 1–2). Located in the central Campus Martius, Agrippa’s thermae, the Thermae Agrippae, were associated with his horti; upon his death in 12 BCE, he le...

Divorum

The Divorum, also known as the Templum Divorum (Degrassi 13.1.103, 233) and the Porticus Divorum, was a porticus with two small temples built in honor of Titus and Vespasian by Domitian, who constructed the complex after the first of 80 CE on the site of the Villa Publica (Chronographer of 354 CE)....

VIII.3.14. House of Queen Carolina; House of Adonis

A large aedicula shrine was built against the rear wall of this long garden (a) directly across from the north side of the atrium, which was entirely open to this view. The shrine stood on a podium 2.00 x 2.15 m.; 0.80 m. high with four steps in front and a marble herm on either side. Two little br...

VIII.3.15. Caupona

This caupona had originally been part of a house according to Fiorelli. The unusual building had a garden (a) in the northeast corner that occupied over one quarter of the house and contained a masonry stibadium, (3.50 m. at the widest dimension), perhaps the only one in Pompeii. A monopodium suppo...

VIII.3.18/16-17. House of Diana

When this house was excavated in 1826, Fiorelli determined that after the earthquake it had been divided into two separated residences. The southeast corner was the location of a garden (a) that had a portico on three sides with columns connected by a low wall and pilasters on the south wall. Plans...

VIII.3.21.

This small house had a roofed passageway supported by one column that bordered the garden (a) on the south and east. A low masonry wall enclosed the garden on these same sides and the north wall had a small arched niche with an aedicula façade. Plans Plan of Region VIII Insula III Pleiades ID 4...

VIII.3.24.

A. The earthquake destroyed an elegant house on this site and this house was subsequently rebuilt on the ruins. A long fauces terminated in the garden (a) which was bounded on the north and part of the east and west sides by a portico. A low wall connected the supporting columns with an entrance on...

VIII.3.27.

From the street, the fauces led to the entrance to the garden (a) which was enclosed on the south and west by a portico with five columns and two engaged columns, all connected by a low wall. The original excavation plan shows a water channel on the south and west edges. Plans Plan of Region VIII...

VIII.3.31. Case di Pan

This house, excavated in 1829-1830, had a peristyle garden (a) on the south side of the property, to the right of the atrium. A portico on the north and part of the south sides had seven columns, one of which was engaged. Plans Plan of Region VIII Insula III Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Ex...

VIII.3.4. House of Hercules and Auge; House of the Popidii

A. Past the tablinium of this house there was a garden (a) with a portico on the north and most of the west side. B. The garden (a) had an entrance to this area (b) which was planted after having been cleared of old structures. Plans Plan of Region VIII Insula III Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031...

VIII.4.12-13. Shop-House

These two shops, excavated in 1861, shared a house and a garden (a) to the back. A portico enclosed the garden on all four sides. In the southwest corner of the garden there was a masonry pool with a small water jet column in the center. A bronze basin 0.40 m. dia. with a miniature bronze lion fitt...

VIII.4.15. House of C. Cornelius Rufus; House of C. Cornelius Adiutor

Eighteen partially fluted columns supported the large portico (a) surrounding this spacious peristyle garden. Excavated in 1861, the garden was located at the rear of the tablinum and could be viewed from the large triclinium on the east or the exedra on the west. A wooden fence had enclosed the ga...

VIII.4.26-29. Bakery and House of Felix

Directly across from the Temple of Isis was an entryway to this garden (a) which was located to the rear of the house. On the east there was a portico with two columns and high up on the north wall there was an arched niche. Plans Plan of Region VIII Insula IV Images Fig.14, 14.22.59 (Stanley...

VIII.4.30.

This tiny house with the small atrium and adjacent rooms had formerly been a porticoed garden, part of house 15 according to Fiorelli. Plans Plan of Region VIII Insula IV Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Excavation Dates Unspecified Bibliography Fiorelli, Gli scavi di Pompei dal 1861 al 1872,...

VIII.4.33.

This garden (a) was tucked around the right end of a long fauces which led from the street. The garden was enclosed by a low wall and a gutter on the north and west and a narrow portico with one column on the north. A cistern opening was built into the wall on the west. Two marble heads 0.16 m. hig...

VIII.4.9. House of T. Mescinius Gelo

What was formerly a garden with a pool was converted into a large open area (a) by the demolition of some walls to the rear of the tablinium. Significant remnants of woolen and linen cloth were recovered from the area when it was excavated in 1860-1861 and this led Fiorelli to believe that the Stab...

VIII.5.15-16/18.

A. Over half the depth of the insula was crossed by a long angiportus which led from the Via dell’Abbondonza to an open area (a) past a wide portico. This extensive area was most likely used as a garden having a water basin in the southwest corner for irrigation. The first two columns in the portic...

VIII.5.2. Casa del Gallo; House of the Cock

At the time of the eruption this peristyle garden (a) was in the process of renovation. Located behind the tablinium, the white fluted columns on the east and north were still standing, however, all of the columns on the west and two of the south columns had been demolished. There was a rectangular...

VIII.5.20/17. Caupona

Entry no. 17 from the angioportus offered a second access to this garden at the rear of the caupona. The rear wall was decorated with a rough painting of Silenus reclining in vegetation pouring out wine from a wineskin. Plans Plan of Region VIII, Insula V Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Excav...

VIII.5.24. Casa del Medico

The famous painting “Judgment of Solomon” (0.45 x 1.55m.; Mus. Naz. inv. no. 113 197; Ruesch no. 1343) was found in this garden (a) on the low wall that connected the four columns and one pillar of the portico. This small garden was located to the right of the atrium and the enclosing portico stood...

VIII.5.28. Casa della Calce; Casa dell’Imperatore Francesco II

Three wide doorways led from the atrium of this house, which did not have a tablinium, to the peristyle of this large garden (a). Nine fluted columns supported the portico which bordered the garden on the east, north and part of the west with a gutter on these same sides. Holes in the columns 0.97 ...

VIII.5.37. Casa delle Pareti Rosse; House of the Fabii

This house was excavated in 1882 to reveal a small garden (a) at the rear entered by passageways on either side of the tablinium. The portico on the east had one column and two engaged columns with a low wall that allowed entrance on the south end. Rooms on the west probably had a roof that extende...

VIII.5.39. House of Acceptus and Euhodia

A. This house was excavated in 1882 to reveal a small garden (a) at the rear entered by passageways on either side of the tablinium. The portico on the east had one column and two engaged columns with a low wall that allowed entrance on the south end. Rooms on the west probably had a roof that exte...

VIII.5.9.

At the rear of the tablinium excavated in 1881 a narrow garden (a) had a portico on the north supported by one pilaster, one engaged column and five stuccoed free-standing columns. The east end of the garden became very narrow with a jut in the back wall and a small, square water basin was built he...

VIII.6.2/7. (no. 12 at Pompeii)

At the time of the eruption this site (a) was under construction. A portico was being built on the south and west sides using brick-shaped tufa columns and three old tufa columns. The columns on the south were salvaged from an earlier building. This was a large area, the intended use not clear. It ...

VIII.6.3. (no. 14 at Pompeii)

Only the bases remain of the fourteen brick columns that enclosed this garden (a). The area to the back of this house had been cleared of the wreckage of the earthquake, and the house to the west was in an earlier stage of recovery, to the point where not even the entrance could be determined. Plan...

VIII.6.4-5. Market Garden

After the earthquake the eastern part of this insula had been converted into a market garden. When it was excavated in 1883-1884 some of the soil contours remained. A basin in the northwest corner collected water that was diverted from the street. Gardening tools were found in this garden and the r...

VIII.6.9-10/1. House and Bakery

The atrium at the front of this house had been converted into a bakery. Towards the back a portico surrounded a small area (a). The portico columns were black at the base and red above, three on the north and three on the south and were connected by a low wall 0.47 m. high, but only the bases survi...

VIII.7.1. Caupona

This caupona, excavated in 1874, had a garden (a) across the back with a low wall on the east and a gutter that ran beside it, most of this covered by a roofed passageway. The northwest corner had a shallow pool, 1.87 x 0.55 m. from which water drained to a into a round basin 0.50 m. dia. on the so...

VIII.7.10. Shop-House

Behind shop no. 10 and the accompanying living quarters was a garden (a) enclosed by a low wall on the east with an entrance on the north end. The excavations in 1906 uncovered a triclinium (l. medius, 4.60 m.; l. imus and l. summus 3.20 m.) attached to the south wall with painted plaster decoratin...

VIII.7.11.

Behind this shop and the rooms beyond that there was a garden (a). Plans Fig.23, Plan of Region VIII, Insula VII Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Excavation Dates Unspecified Bibliography Jashemski, Gardens, vol. II, p. 222 (worldcat) Viola, Gli scavi di Pompei dal 1873 al 1878. In Pompei e l...

VIII.7.12.

The rear of this shop-house had a garden (a), perhaps with rooms overhead supported by columns in the garden according to Fiorelli. Plans Fig.23, Plan of Region VIII, Insula VII Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Excavation Dates Unspecified Bibliography Fiorelli, Descrizione di Pompei, pp. 349...

VIII.7.16. Gladiatorial Barracks; Ludus Gladiatorius; Schola Gladiatoria

A public garden laid out to the specifications of Vitruvius originally occupied the area at the rear of the Great Theater. There was a seventy four column portico enclosing an area with green plots of trees and shrubs and pathways for promenades. In the later years of the city the colonnade was con...

VIII.7.24.

The rooms adjoining the atrium of this house, excavated in 1795-1798, had been converted to a sculptor’s workshop. To the left of the atrium and up fifteen steps was a garden (a) with a surrounding portico and a fountain in the center. The triclinium to the north offered a view of the garden and th...

VIII.7.26-27.

Beyond shop 26 and the living quarters behind it there was a very large garden (a) that was entered directly from the atrium through the portico that stood at the north side of the garden. The garden could also be reached by the long, narrow angiportus located at the rear of the east portico of the...

VIII.7.28. Temple of Isis

This temple site was excavated in 1764-1766 and although, as Jashemski points out, it was likely that there was a sacred garden surrounding it, she could find no evidence of plantings remaining when she examined it. Ceremonies in a garden in front of a temple of Isis were depicted in two paintings ...

VIII.7.30. The Triangular Forum

The Doric Temple in the Triangular Forum was excavated between 1767 and 1797. A superlative view from the colonnade at the edge of the cliff looked across the Bay and a marble fountain basin supported by a fluted marble base stood in front of a middle column of the north portico catching water that...

VIII.7.6.

The extremely long entranceway from the street led all the way to the back of the house into the garden (a) which was excavated in 1906. A portico bordered the garden on the east with four columns, white on top and black on the bottom, connected with a low wall with an entrance on the north end. (F...

VIII.2.1. House of Championnet I

This house was excavated in 1799 and to the rear of the tablinium there was a portico which enclosed an area surrounded by a gutter. Openings were cut in the floor where the twelve supporting columns stood to allow light into the rooms below in the volcanic ledge. Mazois and Fiorelli labeled this a...

VIII.2.13.

The room (b) to the east had a good view into this garden (a) which was located to the rear of the tablinium. A column supported portico bordered the garden on the east and south. Plans Plan of the Pompeii Region VIII, Insula II Plan of the Pompeii Region VIII, Insula II, 1-20 Pleiades ID 4...

VIII.2.14/16.

A. The volcanic ledge that this peristyle garden (a) was built on dictated an irregular shape to the portico that enclosed it. The portico had fourteen columns and a rectangular pool in the south-east corner. The west wall of the pool had fourteen small amphoras (30 cm. long; mouth 9.5 cm. wide) ar...

VIII.2.18-20.

A. The Sarno Bath is included in this block of irregular shaped houses, reached by entrance 17 on the Via della Scuole that goes to the lower levels. On the street level there was a small peristyle garden (a) located in the center of the house. Two pillars supported a portico on three sides of the ...

VIII.2.29-30.

There was a narrow portico on the eastern lower level of this double house 2.20 m. wide with columns connected by a wooden fence. Several steps lower the construction of a supporting wall on the lava ledge allowed room for a small garden (a) with a pool in the center. The house on the west had a te...

VIII.2.3. House of Championnet II

This house, very similar to VII.ii.1, was also excavated in 1799. This peristyle garden had fourteen columns and was more rectangular. There was a terrace to the rear and a small room off the northwest corner of the peristyle which Mazois and Fiorello have labeled a sacrarium. Plans Plan of the P...

VIII.2.34.

A colonnaded portico stood at the edge of the terrace (a) on the street level of this house. Below it was another terrace enclosed by a low wall. Sogliano and Mau disagree as to whether the wall contained a space for plants as only a part on the east remained. This was plastered and painted with a ...

VIII.2.36/37.

This house was excavated in 1885. The entrance at 37 went into the atrium and beyond that, up two steps, was the peristyle with a portico on three sides supported by stuccoed columns, only three of which have remained to date. The first intercolumniation on the north-east was filled with a wall. A ...

VIII.2.39. House of Emperor Joseph II

This was the last of the houses to be built on the Via della Regina, all of which were built over the south wall of the city. Located directly west of the Triangular Forum, it was excavated in 1767-1769, filled in, and then re-excavated in 1885-1886. A triclinium (b) and (b΄) flanked either side of...

I.4.22

Directly to the rear of the atrium, a small viridarium with a paved space (1.70 x 2.50m) behind it suggested use as a summer triclinium to Fiorelli. Soprano was certain that there was an outdoor triclinium of wood or other material located here. Bibliography Fiorelli, G. 1860. Giornale degli scavi...

I.4.11 Caupona of Copious

This modest caupona had a garden at the rear that was raised one step higher than the rest of the building. It once had a masonry altar with a lararium painting above but both of these have been lost. A latrine was located at the southeast corner of the garden. Bibliography Boyce, G.K. 1937. Corpu...

I.4.9

This garden contains a cistern opening and form the entrance a viridarium at the rear of the tablinum and a niche lararium are clearly visible. Bibliography Boyce, G.K. 1937. Corpus of the Lararia of Pompeii, p. 24, no.30 (worldcat) Fiorelli, G. 1860. Giornale degli scavi di Pompei, p. 68 Fiorelli...

I.4.5/25 House of the Citharist

A. Excavation took place at this large house intermittently form 1853 to 1869. There were three large parallel, adjacent gardens. A portico, supported by seventeen stuccoed columns made of brick and Sarno limestone, enclosed the center garden. The columns were red, fluted at the top and plain at th...

I.4.2

This peristyle garden had two entrances on the west and the south. It was located at the rear of the tablinum and had a portico on the west and south enclosed by a low wall and supported by columns. At the west entrance there was a cistern. A large window that looked out into the garden located in ...

I.3.30

This small house, excavated in 1872, had no atrium and the peristyle garden was to the right of the north end of the entrance passageway. A portico enclosed the garden on the west, north, and part of the south sides. Part of the portico had been closed to make rooms. Paintings of amorini decorated ...

I.3.25

A. This house had an irregular plan and a small peristyle garden enclosed on three sides by a low masonry wall. The wall was topped by four stuccoed brick columns which supported the portico. The excavation in 1869-72 showed that restoration was in progress at the time of the eruption. Inside the t...

I.3.24 House of Capella

At the rear of the house, excavated in 1868, there was a peristyle garden with a portico supported by three brick columns on the east and north sides. The south wall had a lararium painting and a crude animal painting on one corner of the south garden wall. This had been executed in the manner of a...

I.3.23 House of Actius Anicetus

This site was excavated in 1868 revealing a peristyle garden at the rear of the house. A portico on the east and north side was supported by five columns connected by a low wall. There was an opening to the garden on the north. The middle of the garden had two cistern puteals. The west wall of the ...

Porticus Liviae

Located on the Oppian hill between the Clivus Suburanus and the later Baths of Trajan (Thermae Traiani) in the Subura, the Porticus Liviae is represented on three fragments of the Severan Marble Plan (FUR). The public porticus was constructed on the site of the grand Domus of Publius Vedius Pollio,...

Domus Aurea

Famous for its innovative architecture, the Domus Aurea contained equally impressive gardens. After the fire of 64 CE, Nero erected this monumental residence, replacing the damaged Domus Transitoria. While the exact boundaries of the property are unknown, it is generally thought to have extended fr...

I.3.20/22

At the rear of this house there was a garden with a passageway on the north and the west. The garden had a gutter along the east, north, and west edges. Embedded in the garden were four large dolia. A large triclinium on the east side had a window that looked out into the garden. Fiorelli surmised ...

I.3.3 House of Epidius Fortunatus

A. On the right of the tablinum were ten steps that led to the peristyle garden. A portico enclosed the garden on the west, north and east sides. This was supported by ten columns and two engaged columns which were stuccoed brick painted red. The north, east, and west edges of the garden had a gutt...

I.2.28 Casa Della Grata Metallica; Casa Dell’Atrio Tetra-Stilo

At the rear of the house there was a peristyle garden with a portico along the east side and part of the south. The excavation took place in 1873-74. A low wall joined three stuccoed brick columns and two engaged ones which supported the portico. There was an entrance to the garden on the south sid...

I.2.24 Officina Libraria

The garden east of the atrium had a portico extending along the south and part of the west sides. A low wall (0.52m high) connected the columns and an entrance to the garden was located on the west. In 1873 the caupona was excavated. The garden contained a masonry triclinium (l. medius, 3.85m; l. s...

I.2.22

This caupona was excavated in 1873 but the reports offer insufficient details to determine if the open area had been planted. The room was entered directly from the street and the open area, had a portico on the north and east supported by one pillar. Fifteen amphorae with inscriptions were uncover...

I.2.20 Caupona of Innulus

This small caupona had a garden at the rear with a roofed passageway on the east and the south. It was excavated in 1873 and a masonry biclinium (l. medius, 2.65m.; l. imus 2.94 m.) with a round table (dia. 0.93 m.) was uncovered in the northwest corner and a niche lararium on the north garden wall...

I.2.17

A. At the rear of the house was a very small garden entered from the tablinum. Excavated in 1872, much of the garden was occupied by two small raised pools, according to Mau. Attached to the west wall was a masonry pool 0.58 m deep on the inside and 0.73 m high on the outside. The other pool was to...

I.2.16

This house was excavated in 1873. The entranceway led directly to the portico which enclosed the garden on the north and east. In the northwest corner of the portico a masonry aedicula lararium formed an arched niche on top of a solid podium. A low wall connected the columns and pillars of the port...

I.2.15

This humble house was excavated in 1873. It had no garden but the impluvium was surrounded by a low masonry wall. The top contained a planting bed which served as a small garden. Bibliography Fiorelli, G. 1875. Descrizione di Pompei, p. 42 (worldcat) Jashemski, W.F. 1993, Gardens of Pompeii: Hercu...

I.2.6

The west portico of the small peristyle garden at the rear of the house was entered through two doors directly from the atrium. The garden was enclosed on four sides by a portico supported by eight stuccoed brick columns. On the foreside, the two first columns on the left had a larger intercolumnia...

I.2.3

The small viridarium at the rear of the house had narrow, slightly raised beds along the walls on the north and east side. These beds were for the cultivation of flowers, according to Fiorelli. A small vestibule on the north side of the garden was decorated with remnants of tufa columns brought fro...

II.6.7 Park Area adjacent to the Great Palaestra and the Amphitheater

Park-like areas were located between the Great Palaestra and the Amphitheater and to the north. Here booths were set up under trees or awnings and a carnival atmosphere existed as depicted in a painting found in the peristyle of house I.iii.23 (Mus. Naz. inv. no. 112 222). Two huge root cavities we...

II.4 Estate of Julia Felix; Praedia di Giulia Felice

Three separate gardens were located in this property. A. Garden A (entrance 9) occupies the entire insula and is one of the largest properties in the city. It was originally excavated in 1755-1757, stripped of its works of art and re-buried. In 1951-1952, this garden was re-excavated and restored b...

II.ii.4

A. The portico which bordered the peristyle garden on the north and east side, and was accessed from the entrance hall. This site had been extensively damaged prior to excavation. B. The east portico gave access to the narrow garden to the back of the house. Bibliography W. F. Jashemski, 1993, Gard...

I.2.10 House of L. Vousius Faustus and M. Volusius Faustus

The garden at the rear of the house, excavated in 1873, is almost totally destroyed. According to Mau, most of the garden was occupied by a large pool (5m X 2.90m) which was sloped toward the west from where it drained into the street through a pipe. The pool was surrounded by a low wall about 0.55...

II.ii.2 (House of D. Octavius Quartio)

A. The spacious Tuscan atrium of this luxurious house excavated in 1918-1921 was a lavish garden. A low, double masonry wall, faced with marble on the outside, bordered the impluvium and according to Spinazzola, the space between the walls had been lined with wood to form a planting box for flowers...

II.i.12 (House of the Birii; House of the Sibyl)

The worship of the Thracian-Phrygian vegetation god, Sabazius, took place in this large peristyles (Roman courtyards) garden which was entered through a wide vestibule from the street. Crude paintings of Venus, Mercury, Bacchus, and Priapus with their accompanying symbols were located high on the s...

II.i.7A/11

A. (Entrance 7A) A square garden area was tucked behind two rooms. The beginnings of an arc-shaped structure in the northeast corner could have been the beginning of an additional cistern according to Dr. De Caro. The soil was badly damaged and Jashemski could not determine the planting patterns, a...

II.i.7B/8-9

A. The access to this garden featured an arched niche high on the garden wall located either side of the direct entrance from the street at entrance 8. A further entrance (7A) from the street was located on the east wall. The masonry triclinium (l. medius, 3.60 m.; l. imus 3.20 l. summus 2.43 m.) i...

II.i.2 (House of Aemilius Primio and Aemiluis Saturninus)

Behind the shop, living quarters were located, including a garden to the rear. The west garden wall was topped with the broken amphorae]; this wall was shared with the rear open area in I.i.1. Bibliography W. F. Jashemski, 1993, Gardens of Pompeii: Herculaneum and the villas destroyed by Vesuvius. ...

Gardens of the Temple of Elagabalus

The building of a religious complex, identified by scholars as the Elagabalium (Heliogablium), later dedicated to Jupiter (Iupiter Ultor), was the final transformation in antiquity of the northwestern terrace (Fig. 1). This enormous west-facing peripteral temple was enclosed by three porticoes on t...

II.i.3-7

The garden in the southeast section of this area was shared the house at entrance 3 and shops 4, 5, and 6 on the Via dell’Abbondanza. It was also possible to enter the garden from the side street at entrance 7. Jashemski established in 1975 that the area had been planted due to the presence of scat...

Garden beneath the House of the Fishes (Domus dei Pesci)

In the course of recent excavations in a room (a) of this house a probable garden area was uncovered (Fig. 1). Only its southern limits, represented by the perimeter wall of an otherwise unidentified building, could be traced. The archaeological sequence established by the stratigraphy of this gard...

Garden Houses (Case a Giardino)

The area in which these houses are situated was laid out as a residential area in c.128 CE as part of the Hadrianic remodeling of Ostia (Fig. 1). It is delimited by buildings of various depths, due to the irregularity of the available space. The central area is occupied by two blocks each comprisin...

House of Amor and Psyche

The entrance of this house (Fig. 1) (which takes its name from the statuary group found in room b) provides access to a large portico (a) with four columns on marble bases, resting on a continuous marble-paneled balustrade 50 cm high. To the right of the portico was an area believed to be a garden ...

House of the Bucrania

In the summer of 2002 part of the hortus of the Domus with peristyle was excavated (in the west corner) (Fig. 1, d). At 80 cm under the present sea level, part of the garden of a Late Republican domus (called Domus with Bucrania) was revealed. The domus was built about 80-60 BCE and destroyed about...

House of the Fortuna Annonaria

The peristyle garden (Fig. 1, a) has travertine columns on three sides. The fourth side coincides with the perimeter wall of the house, which forms part of the original plan, dating to the 2nd century CE. The last phase of the domus, lavishly decorated with precious marbles, dates to the 4th centur...

House of the Thunderbolt (Domus Fulminata)

The peristyle garden, excavated in 1941, was surrounded by a portico on all four sides, supported by brick columns, some of which were paired or clustered in threes (Fig. 1). In the original building, dating to the Flavian period, the garden (a) was furnished with a brick biclinium, with the klinai...

House on Via del Tempio Rotundo

This house was only partially excavated between June 1972 and January 1973 (Fig. 1). In its Augustan phase the peristyle garden (a) was adorned with a large central basin paved in opus signinum. At the center of the basin was a brick support, interpreted as the base of a fountain. The columns of th...

House with Peristyle

During the winter 1938-1939 part of an earlier building was found under the occupation level of the Schola of the Trajan. It was called House with peristyle, as the main preserved feature was seen to be the considerable part of a classical peristyle) (Fig. 1, b). The house was erected between 20-40...

Piazzale della Corporazioni

In the original plan of the Augustan period the garden area to the back of the theater was surrounded on three sides by a roofed corridor opening onto the Tiber on the northern side with a monumental entrance. In the Claudian period the whole level of the area was raised and a portico consisting of...

Schola of Trajan

The monumental complex of the Schola of the Trajan, presumed headquarters of the corporation of the marine carpenters, was built c.160-200 and abandoned after the 4th century CE. It was excavated and restored during the winter of 1938-1939. It includes a vast internal courtyard, which is oblong and...

Insula dei Dipinti

The large open area in this insula, divided into two by a wall, was identified as a garden at the time of excavation (1914 to 1919), but on little evidence apart from the absence of paving over most of the area. Recent excavations have however clarified the phases of the garden and added some signi...

House of Europa, Central District (Maison d'Europe, Quartier Central)

The block of buildings termed the House of Europa, about 1500 square meters in area, extends along the main Cardo, quite over the north gate of the town. It included large and small baths, a monumental entrance, shops and other areas for commercial use, and a peristyle house on the north side. It w...

House of Hylas, Central District (Maison de Castorius, Quartier central)

This small, irregular house, resting against the west wall of the judicial basilica, was found in a ruined state in 1938. On the side of the corridor leading from the Severan Forum, there was a garden, about 11 by 12 meters in size. It was enclosed by a portico on the north and the east sides, with...

Building of the Three Basins (Edifice des trois bassins)

This building, located to the NW of the Winter Baths, was comprised of three articulated sectors, the SE area, the NW area, and the area to the N of the NW area. The SE area was laid out around an incomplete peristyle with seven columns along the NW and SW sides (Plan view, Fig. 1). Three semicircu...

Casa del Larario Fiorito (II.ix.4)

Excavated in the later 1980s, this property features a garden, described by Ciarallo as “laid out in eight ground strips bordered by furrows.” She interprets this layout as a plant nursery, also taking into account that the root cavities throughout were small, 4-8 c. in diameter, with two larger ca...

II.6 The Great Palaestra

Colonnaded porticoes encircled the palaestra on the south, west and north. A large swimming pool (34.55 m x 22.25 m) was located in the center. Casts made of tree cavities planted eight meters apart in two rows around the north, west and south sides of the enclosed area indicated that these were pl...

II.8.1

Jashemski examined this sizeable garden to the rear of this property in 1957 and concluded that the pronounced north-south furrows bordered by water channels indicated that this was most likely a vegetable garden. An oven against the south wall of the entrance room, and a bowl in the garden, sugges...

II.8.2-3

Customers at this thermopolium were served at a counter looking onto the street and at the masonry triclinium (l. medius, 3.60 m.; l. imus 2.85; l. summus 2.30 m.) in the rear garden. This was located against the north wall to the front of this long, narrow garden and had a round table (0.50 m. in ...

II.8.5

A. A very small bath was located at the left rear of the atrium in this unusual building. Behind this was a tiny garden with three small triclinia on either side. The couches of these six triclinia were so low and narrow they must have been used as seats similar to the tabernae attached to the hous...

II.8.6 House of the Garden of Hercules

A large aedicula lararium on the east wall and a large triclinium (l. medius, 4.40 m.; l. imus 4.00; l. summus 3.80 m.; table between couches 1.00 x 1.67m.) were found in the large area attached to this humble house when excavation was started in 1953-1954. Human remains were uncovered with five go...

II.9.6-7 House of Summer Triclinium

A. To the west of the Great Palaestra there was a large garden which was partially excavated in 1954-1956. A low masonry wall with planting spaces in the top enclosed an elaborate masonry triclinium (l. medius, 4.45 m.; l. imus 4.20; l. summus 3.55 m.) with a table 0.65 x 0.75 m.) on the south, wes...

Park Area Adjacent to the Great Palaestra and the Amphitheater

Park-like areas were located between the Great Palaestra and the Amphitheater and to the north. Here booths were set up under trees or awnings and a carnival atmosphere existed as depicted in a painting (Mus. Naz. inv. no. 112 222) found in the peristyle of house I.3.23. Two huge root cavities were...

II.2.4 House of Messius Ampliatus

A. The portico which bordered the peristyle garden on the north and east side was accessed from the entrance hall. This site had been extensively damaged prior to excavation. B. The east portico gave access to the narrow garden to the back of the house. Bibliography Jashemski, W.F. 1979. ‘The Gar...

II.3.4-6

A. A small garden at the rear of this connected house and caupona may have originally contained the two small statuettes found at this site in 1953. The two pieces were a headless ithyphallic tufa statuette (0.33 m. high with base; Pompeii inv. no. 10017) and a marble statuette of Venus (0.51 m. hi...

II.3.7/9

This garden restaurant was strategically located across from the Palaestra. This garden occupied most of the southern part of this insula and had a masonry triclinium (l. medius, 4.90 m; l. imus and summus 4.50m), as well as a round table (1.00 m in diameter) and a square table (0.90m x 0.90m). Dat...

II.5 Large Vineyard

Located north of the amphitheater, this site was initially identified as the Foro Boario or Cattle Market. A small amount of excavation was started in 1755, but in 1814 the entrance and south wall were excavated. Most of the excavation was completed in the 1950s, except the northeastern section. In...

Peristyle garden in house of Messius Ampliatus (II.ii.4)

Dates Unspecified Bibliography Della, Corte M, Case Ed Abitanti Di Pompei, Pompei-scavi: M. Della Corte, 1954. Print. worldcat Jashemski, Wilhelmina F, ‘The Garden of Hercules at Pompeii’ (II.viii.6): The Discovery of a Commercial Flower Garden.,American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 83, no. 4, ...

Hermaphrodite House (Maison de l'Hermaphrodite)

The large house was laid out around a large peristyle of 22 columns. In the axis of the triclinium was a rectangular pool. The courtyard may have been planted (Plan view, Fig. 1). Maps Plans Fig. 1: Plan of the Hermaphrodite House (Germain, S., 1969, fig. 7) Images Dates 3rd century CE? Bibliog...

House of Sertius (Maison de Sertius)

This large domus the result of the combining of two houses, is located at the periphery of the center of the city. The domus is laid out around two peristyles. The first, near the vestibule had a long rectangular basin placed in the axis of the triclinium, the two strips that bordered the pool may ...

House of the Planters (Maison aux jardinières)

Located SW of the Decumanus and NE of the forum, the house of the “Jardinières” almost square shaped, was laid out around a peristyle of 10 columns. Along the three porticoes and the angles of the fourth were arranged planters (10,50 x10,50 m) whose contours are curved. Double herm-head...

House of the Warehouse (Maison de l'entrepôt)

This large house was laid out around two peristyles (A,B) arranged along the N S axis. The plan presents a complex layout notably in the southern part of the domus upon which the excavators did not comment thoroughly (Plan view, Fig. 1). The S part of the domus was probably added in a latter period...

Water Sanctuary Aqua Septimiana Felix (Sanctuaire des eaux)

The water sanctuary lies beneath the Byzantine fort in the Northern suburbs of the city. An inscription that was discovered during the Byzantine fort excavations enumerates the embellishments that were undertaken in 213 by the city of Timgad for the sanctuary, Aqua Septimiana Felix: one of which, a...

House of the Trifolium (Maison du Trifolium)

This house is the largest excavated to-date at Thugga. It appears to date from the first half of the 3rd century. The rooms on the ground floor were arranged around a large court, which was more than 5 m (Plan view, Fig. 1) lower than the street. A garden occupied the center of the court which is e...

Casa di Galba (VII.2)

The excavation of this site was begun in 1873-1874 and is still incomplete. A silver bust, supposedly of the emperor Galba, found in the street in front of this house gave the site its name. Twelve stuccoed tufa columns support a portico which encloses this peristyle garden. A marble faced crucifor...

Great Palestra (Insula or. II.4)

The Palaestra was crossed by Burbon tunnels in 1756-1760 and partially excavated from 1933 to 1954. Carbonized remains of large tree trunks found in the southwest corner and along the north side against the portico where they were swept by the volcanic flow indicated to Maiuri that the central area...

Sacred Area Outside the South Walls

The southern edge of town was against a sharp drop to the sea. A terrace located on this drop held two shrines (a) and (b) and a series of rooms for cult activities. All of these faced on a long garden (c) 6.85 x 22.60 m. where the fragments of two large marble fountain basins were found when this ...

Casa del Colonnato Tuscanico (VI.17/26)

This house with an L-shaped floor plan had a peristyle garden (a) at the juncture of the two wings enclosed by a seventeen column portico. The garden entrance facing the large room to the north had double columns, and the garden could be approached from the atrium or from the entrance off the stree...

House of the Viridarium with Niches (Maison du viridarium à niches)

The house was located in the W neighborhood of the ancient city of Pupput and in present day lies in the precinct of a hotel, the construction of which badly damaged the house (Plan view, Fig.1). The house has had three phases. During the second phase the garden peristyle (V) was bounded by a low w...

Palace of Hyrcanus the Tobiad

This large preserved palace provides a rare glimpse of the kind of luxurious complex built by the late Hellenistic Alexandrian elite. According to Josephus (Antiquities Book 12:228-236), Hyrcanus the Tobiad was a Hellenized Jew and Ptolemaic official who had spent considerable time in Alexandria. R...

562.Insula or. I.2-3(B)

B. From the atrium the peristyle on the lower level was reached by way of a steeply sloping corridor. Stuccoed brick columns and a low wall 0.50 m. high enclosed the central area (b) and a large gutter collected water from the edges and conducted it to the cistern. A rectangular pool ca. 2.60 x 5.0...

563.Insula or. I.2-3(C)

C. There are five rooms south of the peristyle and on a lower level beyond them is another garden (c). Plans Plan of the new excavations of Herculaneum (Maiuri, Herculaneum) Herculaneum - insula orientalis I. 1-3-c Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Dates Unspecified Bibliography Maiuri, Er...

564.Insula or. I.2-3(D)

D. A rustic shrine was attached to the north side of the house and a long narrow garden (d) was located here. There was evidence of earlier construction at this location. Plans Plan of the new excavations of Herculaneum (Maiuri, Herculaneum) Herculaneum - insula orientalis I. 1-3-d Pleiades...

Casa del Rivievo di Telefo (Insula or. I.2-3)

A. The excavation of this house in 1934-1936 revealed an unusual atrium arrangement, which Maiuri states is the first time the architectural scheme that is used in a peristyle was stylishly applied to the atrium. The atrium had no fauces, there were three columns on both the north and south sides, ...

Casa del Salone Nero (VI.13/11)

Excavation of this garden (a) to the rear of this elegant house took place in the spring of 1939. The garden was completely surround by a portico which had eight columns and two pillars on the north side with engaged columns placed strategically so as to provide an unimpeded view from the tablinum....

Casa della Gemma (Insula or. I.1)

A. This garden (a) is built partially into the edge of the hill and partially on vaults. A square opening enclosed by a high wall in the center of the garden supplies light to the floor below, shared by both the Casa della Gemma with windows on three sides and the Casa del Rilievo di Telefo next do...

Insula or. I.1

B. The front of this house has an L-shaped terrace (b) which provided a passageway between the kitchen and the triclinium that opened onto the long loggia (c) with a spectacular view of the Bay. The terrace could have been decorated with potted plants. A gutter on the edges of the terrace, exceptin...

Insula or. II

Directly south of the Great Palaestra there is a peristyle garden (a) enclosed by a portico. A pool with a low wall surrounding it is located in the center of this garden. Plans Plan of the new excavations of Herculaneum (Maiuri, Herculaneum) Herculaneum - Garden (a) south of the Great Palaes...

House H (Maison H)

This house, the largest in insula III (lots 2,3,4,9,10), rivals the House of the Cascade in size and richness of mosaics (Plan view, Fig.1). A semicircular basin extended into the garden on the S and E sides, each decorated with a marine scene. Plans Fig.1: Plan of the House H (CMT, pp.121-128). ...

House of the Cascade (Maison de la Cascade)

This house, the largest in the insula II (lots 2,3,8,9,10), was given its present form in the second century. A large peristyle with elaborate viridarium dominated the S part of the house (Plan view, Fig.1). The large shallow pool in the center of the garden occupied a rectangular area that was lar...

House of the Dolphins (Maison des dauphins)

The vast house (3000-3500 m2) is laid out around a large peristyle garden (Plan view, Fig.1). The large sunken garden (X, 16 x 16.25 m) was enclosed by a low wall (0.70 m high) and had a large semicircular basin (dia. 3.10 m) between the fifth and the sixth column facing a reception room (XXV). A r...

House of the Figured Basin (Maison du bassin figuré)

The house was located in the insula III. The rectangular courtyard, in the SW corner on the axis of the great hall (XI), paved during the last period may have been a garden earlier (Plan view, Fig.1). It had a semicircular basin with a geometric design in the bottom. The wall and the brim were figu...

House of the Grand Oecus (Maison du grand oecus)

This house is the most important dwelling discovered to date at Utica. The large peristyle garden (XXVII), enclosed by a portico on four sides (XXVIII-XXX) had a long basin euripus concave at each end down the center of the garden (Plan view, Fig. 1). The bottom was paved with a simple mosaic. The ...

House of the Lucius Verus

The house was laid out around a large persityle garden of twenty-two columns (20 x15.5 m) that had a euripus and a semicircular basin facing a large reception room (Plan view, Fig.1) Plans Fig. 1: Plan of the House of Lucius Verus (Afrique dans l'Occident romain, fig. 8) Dates 3rd century C...

House of the Peacock (Maison du Paon)

This large house (1800 m2) adjacent to the domus of Sollertiana on the N had a large peristyle garden (XIII, 10.50 x 13.20 m) enclosed on four sides by a portico (XIV-XVII) of 18 columns that were connected by a low wall (Plan view, Fig.1). A semicircular basin facing the large oecus on the N, exte...

House of the Treasure (Maison au trésor)

The House is located in the insula II (Lots 1,7). The peristyle garden had a semicircular basin extending from the two middle columns on the S side, facing the triclinium (XVII) during the first century AD (Plan view, Fig.1). When the house was substantially altered in the second century the enlarg...

House of the West (Maison de l'est)

The peristyle garden (V) has a rectangular basin with curved angles extending from two middle columns on the W side, facing the triclinium (XI) (Plan view, Fig.1). The house is dated to the II century. Plans Fig.1: Plan of the House of the West (CMT, plan 4) Dates 2nd century CE Bibliography B...

House of the White Mosaic (Maison des mosaïques blanches)

This house located E of the House of the Dolphins, has a small sunken peristyle garden (VI, 6.35 x 7 m) 60 cm lower than the level of the portico and bordered by a low wall (Plan view, Fig.1). Plans Fig.1: Plan of the house of the White Mosaic. (CMT, plan 7) Dates Early 3rd century CE Bibliogra...

Sollertianna Domus

This large house (1120 m2) at the periphery of the SW quarter was laid out around a peristyle garden (VII, 8.20x11.30 m) enclosed on four sides by a portico of 14 columns that connected by a low wall (Plan view, Fig.1). A semicircular basin extended into the garden 75cm lower than the level of the ...

I.7.1 House of P. Paquius Proculus; House of C. Cuspius Pansa

This elegant house was excavated in 1923. To the rear was a large and sunny peristyl garden with a portico on four sides supported by sixteen columns. At the northeast corner stood a lava puteal with a gutter that ran around the edges of the garden. In the center of the garden a wooden triclinium w...

I.7.18 Shop-House

Two paintings were found on the west wall of the atrium behind this shop, one was of a porticus villa on the sea and the second was a garden representation (o.16 x 0.43 m.). The garden was surrounded by a lattice fence which was drawn wider in the front than the rear and had a rectangular pool in f...

I.7.15-17 Shop-House

The shop-house was laid out in a very irregular manner and the garden took up most of the space. There was a masonry triclinium in the southern part of the garden. This had a lectus imus and a lectus summus that both were 3.80 m. in length and the lectus medius was 4.24 m. in length. The rectangula...

I.7.7 House of the Priest Amandus

One step above the level of the triclinium of this small house with an irregular floor plan was a peristyle garden. It was to the west of the atrium and enclosed on the north and east by a portico. Five columns supported the portico and two engaged columns on the west wall continued the order of th...

I.7.2-3 House of M. Fabius Amandio; House of P. Cornelius Cornthus

A very small garden was located in the light well at the rear of the atrium. The small raised garden (about 0.50 m. high) had a tiny semicircular pool fed by roof water. Three marble bases (0.16 x 0.21 m.) were most likely place at the edge of the pool. A garden painting adorned the wall behind poo...

I.5.3/16

This site had been destroyed in antiquity and probably had been a hospitium. Excavated in 1874, the remains of a watering trough for animals and a stable were uncovered. Often demolished sites were planted but it could not be determined if there was vegetation present at the time of the eruption. T...

I.5.2 Officina Coriarioum of M. Vesonius Primus

A. This tannery was excavated in 1873-1874. The peristyle courtyard had a portico to the north and east supported by brick pillars which had been most likely been built when the original house was converted to a tannery. Against the west wall there was a masonry triclinium (l.medius 4.99 m.; l.summ...

Guest House 2

In the first third of the 3rd century A.D. another guest house, so-called Guest House II (B on plan), was built at Olympia, immediately east of and connected with Guest House I (see Fig. 1). Guest House II was almost certainly built to supplement Guest House I after alterations to the latter result...

Guest House 1

A Roman guest house of the 2nd century A.D., so-called Guest House I, was erected southeast of the Roman Kladeos baths of ca. 100 A.D. (Fig. 3, A on plan). The guest house had a peristyle courtyard with a water-filled channel surrounding a rectangular island. The island may have been planted as a g...

Leonidaion

This building southwest of the temple of Zeus was the largest guest house in the sanctuary at Olympia. The original Leonidaion, a gift of Leonidas from Naxos, was built shortly after 338 B.C. with a central courtyard. In the 2nd century A.D. the building was remodeled, and this courtyard was transf...

House of Nero

This house was built at the time of, and possibly for, the emperor Nero, who, on several occasions in the mid-1st century A.D., performed personally in the games at Olympia. To enable the construction of the building just south of the stadium, the earlier east baths were demolished. The house had a...

Sanctuary of Zeus

The extensive sanctuary at which Panhellenic athletic games took place, was situated on the Alpheus river in groves of trees of ancient date. In early Greek mythology, the semi-divine Herakles was said to have planted trees in the sacred precinct, called the Altis, at Olympia (Pindar, Olympian Odes...

Sanctuary of Zeus

The grove of trees at the temple of Zeus is known through Pausanias’ description of it (2.15.2) and from archaeological excavations in the temple precinct. Excavations in the 1970s uncovered 23 planting pits cut out of the living rock on the south side of the temple (Fig. 1, gray circles on plan). ...

Victory Monument of Augustus

The tropaeum of Nicopolis, a monument celebrating the naval victory of Octavian over the joint forces of Anthony and Cleopatra at Actium, is situated on the so-called Sacred Hill of Apollo north of the ancient city. On this hill, according to ancient sources, Octavian camped during the crucial days...

Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone

Pausanias gave directions on how to reach the grove called Pyraia, located near the city of Sikyon (2.11.3). He did not reveal what kind of trees grew here, but the grove was sacred to Demeter and Persephone. In it both men and women held religious festivals, but in separate locations. Statues of D...

Sanctuary of Ganymede or Hebe

The only indication that there was a garden at this sanctuary is a literary reference to a grove of cypress trees. According to Pausanias (2.13.3), this ancient sanctuary in the northeastern Peloponnese was located above the acropolis. The grove associated with the goddess Ganymede or Hebe was stil...

Sanctuary of Poseidon Onchestios

According to Pausanias, the ancient city of Onchestos in Boeotia lay in ruins by the time he visited the site in the 2nd century A.D., but the shrine and statue of Poseidon Onchestios and the sacred grove survived (9.26.5). This, he says, was the grove that Homer praised in his poetry (Il. 2.506; s...

Sanctuary of Zeus Philios

Pausanias mentioned a small grove of trees in the sanctuary of Zeus Philios that was in close proximity to the agora in Megalopolis (8.31.4-5). The grove was enclosed within a boundary wall. In the precinct were images of the goddesses Demeter and Kore. This grove almost certainly had been in exist...

Sanctuary of Apollo and the Nymphs

A grove and shrine of Apollo in the mountaintop town of Kyrtones in Boeotia was visited by Pausanias in the 2nd century A.D. (9.24.4). There was also a natural spring at the site, next to which was a sanctuary of the Nymphs and a small grove of fruit-bearing trees. Dates unspecified Pleiades ID 540...

Sanctuary of Poseidon

We know of a grove of trees in the precinct of the temple of Poseidon, thanks to Pausanias’ and Strabo’s descriptions of it in the early 1st and the later 2nd century A.D. (Strab. 8.6.22; Paus. 2.1.7). According to Pausanias, on one side of the precinct stood statues of athletes who had been victor...

Sanctuary of Hyernetho

According to local legend, the Argive maiden, Hyrnetho, died in an ancestral struggle and was buried on this site (Pausanias, 2.28.6-7). The sanctuary lay in the midst of a grove of wild olive trees. Established law, even in Roman times, forbade anyone to remove broken branches of these olives or a...

Tomb Garden and Cistern of Gallatis, Son of Pythion

An inscription found near Chaeronea and known only from a transcription records the dedication by Gallatis, the son of Pythion, probably some time during the first or second century, of a funerary monument to himself, his wife, his children, and whomever his children wish, “with the cistern and gar...

Altar of the Twelve Gods

A grove of olive and laurel trees surrounding the Altar of the Twelve Gods in the Athenian Agora is mentioned in the late 1st century A.D. by the Roman writer Statius in his epic poem Thebaid (12.481-496). Excavations conducted there revealed the remains of the planting pits of trees, although ther...

Villa of Herodes Atticus

A large (20,000 sq. m.) villa on a small hill near the ancient site of Eua has been systematically excavated since the 1980s. Most of the discoveries, however, remain unpublished. Because the earliest remains date to the Flavian period and an inscription mentions the name Hipparchus, father of Hero...

Neoplatonic School Near the Areopagus

Several houses with peristyle courtyards were built north of the Areopagus in the second half of the 4th century A.D. These have been interpreted as schools of the Neoplatonic philosophers in which the school directors lived and students were instructed. One of these buildings, the so-called House ...

Garden of Epicurus

In the 4th century B.C., the schools and gardens of the philosophers Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastos and Epicurus were built in the vicinity of the gymnasia in the suburbs of Athens. Like the gymnasia, these schools were held in especially high esteem by members of the wealthy, educated class of Rom...

Sanctuary of Artemis

The Greeks in Homer’s Iliad sacrificed to Artemis at Aulis in Boeotia in the hopes of favorable winds to carry them from Greek shores to Troy (Il. 2.305-310). The late 5th century Athenian playwright, Euripides, made reference to the grove of Artemis in his Iphigenia in Aulis (185-186, 1543-1549). ...

Temple of Hephaistos

On the western edge of the Athenian Agora on Kolonos hill was the Temple of Hephaistos, built in the second half of the 5th century B.C. Excavations in 1937 around the temple revealed numerous square planting pits cut into the living rock in the 3rd century B.C. and again in the 1st century B.C. (F...

Library of Hadrian

The most monumental building dedicated to education and intellectual pursuits in Athens was the so-called Library of Hadrian (Fig. 1). It consisted of four columned halls with exedrae at regular intervals on the north and south sides, and a library room flanked by lecture halls on the east. In the ...

Gymnasia and Groves

The three most famous gymnasia in Athens, situated outside the city in naturally well-watered and shady sanctuaries of pre-Classical date, were those in the suburbs. In the Academy there was a shrine of the hero Hekademos; the Lykeion had a sanctuary of Apollo; and a cult site of Herakles was locat...

Urban Houses Near the Areopagus

Several Roman houses in Athens make use of the remains of Classical and Hellenistic buildings, and, as far as we can tell, these houses generally had courtyards paved with marble chips, pebbles or tile set in mortar, rather than with gardens. One house on the northwest slope of the Areopagus, howev...

Palace of the Giants

A large complex of the early 5th century A.D. in the southern part of the Agora on the site of the earlier Odeon of Agrippa generally has been interpreted as a late Roman gymnasion (“Gymnasion of the Giants”) (Fig. 1). Homer Thompson, however, proposed that the building might have been an official ...

Temple Grove

Evidence for a temple grove on Aegina exists only in a literary reference. Pausanias (2.29.6) wrote that the shrine of Aiakos was surrounded by a grove of olive trees. Pausanias says that it had been there since ancient times, and a reference in 464 B.C. to the grove in Pindar’s Olympian Odes (13.1...

Rural Villa in Sudeley/Spoonley Wood

The main residence of this rural estate in Gloucestershire, excavated in 1882, is of the winged corridor type (Fig. 1). From the north and south corners of the house, walls ran in a westerly direction to enclose an open courtyard (G in Fig. 1) approximately 65 meters wide and 45 meters deep from th...

Caesarea Maritima Byzantine Law Court and Roof Garden

Byzantine Law Court and Roof Garden Architectural analysis and epigraphic finds excavated by Josef Patrich and the Combined Caesarea Excavations suggest that the buildings in the area immediately south of the harbor (Area CC) formed a governmental compound of Roman - Byzantine Caesarea, comprising ...

Caesarea Maritima Promontory Palace of Herod the Great

Promontory Palace of Herod the Great A seaside palace west of the theater at Caesarea Maritima has been identified by E. Netzer as the maritime palace Herod the Great built to supervise construction of the great harbor, and, later, to provide reception space for guests at spectacles and official fu...

Herodium Herod’s Tomb Garden

Herod’s Tomb Garden In 2005, Netzer’s team found the long-sought tomb of Herod, positioned on a terrace constructed into the slope of the artificial hill. This terrace was constructed of chipped stone and construction debris, largely the light limestone of the area. To the front and sides of the to...

Herodium Lower Garden Complex

Lower Herodium Lower Herodium (Fig. 1C) comprises several units. Here the central focus is the large pool, the water of which was supplied by a 6 km long aqueduct built by Herod from the spring at the modern village of Artas. The pool is set into a huge garden terrace 120 X 110 m. in size. It was c...

Herodium Palace Fortress

Palace Fortress The Palace Fortress is a cylindrical structure originally seven stories high (two vaulted corridors in the substructure and five stories of corridors each having its floors supported on wooden beams). In the open interior of the cylinder, palace quarters were designed with luxurious...

Jericho Herodian First Palace

Herodian First Palace Herod may have been a regular guest at the Hasmonean palace during his boyhood. Even after he effected his rule in 37 B.C., the Hasmoneans retained possession of their winter palace for a few years, according to Josephus. Artistobulus III was drowned there by Herod’s men when ...

Jericho Herodian Second Palace

Herodian Second Palace The earthquake of 31 B.C. destroyed the Hasmonean palace complex, and the political changes that took place after Actium enabled Herod to gain full possession of the winter palaces. On top of the ruined palaces, he built a new complex (Fig 8). The two pools of the Pool Comple...

Jericho Herodian Third Palace Corinthian Peristyle

Corinthian Peristyle With porticoes on three sides and measuring 23 x 14.5m, this courtyard, known as area B55, is decorated with columns in the Corinthian order. (Fig. 16) The lower portions of these smooth stucco shafts alternate between red and black; above them the columns are of fluted white s...

Jericho Herodian Third Palace Ionic Peristyle

Ionic Peristyle This peristyle courtyard (19.1 x 18.7) lies adjacent to the banquet hall and near Roman baths constructed in opus reticulatum. It is referred to in excavation reports as area B64. The central garden is surrounded on three sides by a colonnade of cemented stone, stuccoed in white and...

Jericho Herodian Third Palace Sunken Garden

Sunken Garden The monumental ‘sunken garden’ (B6), which measures 37.27 x 113.67m, lies largely unexcavated on the south side of Wadi Qelt, in alignment with the buildings and gardens described above (Fig 17). First explored in 1950 by Kelso and Baramki and again by Netzer in 1979, its perimeter is...

Jericho Palace of John Hyrcanus I

Palace of John Hyrcanus I Erected on the southern margin of the royal estate around 120 B.C., north of Wadi Qelt, the palace has not yet been studied in its entirety, since at a later stage most of it was buried (Fig 2 area AA). At its center lay a courtyard measuring (25 x 18m) flanked by rooms on...

Jericho Pool Complex of Alexander Janneaus

Pool Complex of Alexander Janneaus The ascent to the throne of Alexander Jannaeus in 103 B.C. triggered a significant development in the above palace. He constructed another conduit from the “Auja and Na’aran” springs to the north of the palace site, which improved the gardens and bathing facilitie...

Jericho Twin Palaces of Alexandra Salome and Late Hasmonean Gardens

Twin Palaces of Alexandra Salome and Late Hasmonean Gardens The trend toward formal gardens and swimming pools at the palace complex gained new expression during the reign of Janneaus’ widow, 76 to 32 B.C.E. Two identical structures built at this time, sharing a common wall, appear to have housed h...

Macchaerus Southern Courtyard

During the architectural survey in 2010, the team excavated a 4 x 2m trench to the west of the storerooms and east of the bath quarter. Working to a depth of 2m, the archaeologists encountered one meter of homogenous soil over the artificial stone terrace. The only artifact found was a Herodian lam...

Masada

The earliest phases of Herodian building are seen in the Western Palace area. These buildings are architecturally similar to the Hasmonean palaces at Jericho and include the garden features of the southern area of the mountain top: water channels, cisterns, two swimming pools, and a columbarium. Gl...

Rural Villa in Latimer

Excavations at this country house in Buckinghamshire have produced evidence for gardens adjacent to the main residence in its latest phase dating to the beginning of the 4th century (Fig. 1). The house at the west is of the winged corridor type, fronted by a large courtyard bisected by a paved cent...

Rural Villa in Gorhambury

At this site in Hertfordshire near the town of Verulamium (St. Albans) excavations have revealed a multi-phased Roman farm, characterized in late Iron Age and Roman times by an outer courtyard with various service buildings and an inner courtyard in which the farm house stood (Fig. 1). An avenue 20...

Rural Estate in Gatcombe

This site of a large rural estate about 9 hectares in size in Somerset is enclosed within a massive wall (Fig.1). Although the site was not completely excavated, there is evidence to suggest that the main residence (A in Fig. 1) was located at the southern end of the complex, separated from various...

Rural Villa in Frocester Court

This Roman villa in Gloucestershire is situated about 14 miles west of the civitas capital Corinium Dobunnorum (Cirencester). The main residence is of the winged corridor type, fronted by a large courtyard which was bounded by the house on one side, by a wall on the two sides perpendicular to the h...

Roman Palace in Fishbourne

Fishbourne Roman Palace was accidentally discovered during the digging of a water main trench in 1960. The discovery led to nine seasons of excavations (1961-69) that showed the site had developed from a military base at the time of the Roman invasion in AD 43 to a sumptuous palace by the end of th...

Rural Villa in Eccles

This country estate in modern Kent possessed a large ornamental pool (P in Fig. 1) in the area in front of the main residence (A in Fig. 1) and to the east of the attached bath house (Fig. 1). The masonry pool measuring 25 x 3.50 meters lay parallel to the house frontage. From the pool ran a masonr...

Rural Villa in Darenth

Excavations at this site of a Roman villa in Kent uncovered a large rectangular masonry pool in the courtyard, which was enclosed by buildings on the north, west, and east (Fig. 1). The villa buildings took up an area of 150 x 225 meters in total, including the courtyard with a width of 26.5 meters...

Tomb Painting in Chester

Toynbee’s suggestion that a military tombstone from Chester depicting a row of three gabled buildings with stylized trees or shrubs planted in front of the two at the sides perhaps represents a tomb garden with tomb and flanking funerary buildings, though plausible, cannot in itself be taken to sho...

Rural Villa in Chedworth

This Roman villa in Gloucestershire was partially excavated in the late 19th century, but only the built features and their mosaic floors appear to have been of interest to the Victorian diggers. Excavations in the courtyard conducted between 2000 and 2002 revealed that earlier excavators had not d...

Rural Villa in Bancroft

Excavations between 1983 and 1986 at this site in Buckinghamshire revealed a Roman villa of the winged corridor type, which was built in the late 3rd century and rebuilt and enlarged in the mid-4th century (Fig.1). From the two projecting wings of the house at the northeast and southeast two walls ...

Suburban Gardens in Camulodunum

Outside the walls of the city, utilitarian gardens were planted, possibly in the 3rd century, in allotments along the road leading to the Balkerne Gate. Upon the widening of the defensive ditch at the foot of the walls around AD 275, a thick dump of soil was deposited on these garden allotments, pr...

Agora of the Italians

The Agora of the Italians, with a size of some 6,000 square meters, is situated prominently in the center of Delos, between the famous sanctuary of Apollo to the south and the Sacred Lake to the north. The design of the Agora centers on a vast courtyard with four double-storied porticoes enclosing ...

East Temple (Temple de l'Est)

A strip of soil bordered most of the long sides of the temple and the mosaic paving in front of it (Plan view, Fig. 1). Preliminary excavations in 1990 in a strip 1m wide at the front of the garden, on the left, yielded a row of root cavities approximately 15cm in diameter and 50-70cm apart suggest...

House of Bacchus and Ariadne (Maison de Bacchus et Ariane)

This large house, occupying most of an insula (excavated in l925), dates in its present form from the early fifth century. The SW part of the house was devoted to business, the production of olive oil. The rooms on the NE side of the residence area were arranged around a peristyle garden. The mosai...

House of Fourni

In the Late Hellenistic houses of Delos the impluvia of peristyle courtyards were usually paved, and rainwater falling into these courtyards was emptied as wastewater by sewers into nearby streets. However, in two large houses (Quarter of the Theater, Insula II, Houses E and F) and two clubhouses o...

House of Neptune (Maison de Neptune)

The house was laid out around a peristyle garden (IV-VIII), with four porticos supported by twelve columns. A low wall separated the porticos from the garden (Plan view, Fig. 1). A semicircular basin extended into the garden between the second and the third columns on the SE side. The cistern openi...

House of Nicentus (Maison de Nicentus)

The house is adjacent to the E angle of the Forum at the back of the Curia. It was laid out around a peristyle garden (VI-X) of 12 columns (Plan view, Fig. 1). A low wall separated the porticos from the garden. Two semicircular pools projected into the garden; they were located in the axis of two r...

House of the Palms (Maison des Palmes)

The house of the Palms was located to the NW of the forum. A semicircular basin was installed at a later date over the mosaic in the NW portico at the edge of what was perhaps a small garden (Plan View, Fig. 1). Maps Plans Fig. 1: Plan of the House of the Palms (CMT, V. II, fasc.1, plan 25-26. ) ...

House of the Protomes (Maison des Protomés)

This very large house on the western edge of the site had two sectors, the Trifolium area and the Protomes area (Plan view, Fig. 1). The Trifolium sector, was laid out around a peristyle garden (I-V) enclosed on four sides by a portico of 12 columns. The garden, 35 cm lower than the level of the po...

House of the Trussed Animals (Maison des animaux liés)

The house of the Trussed Animals is bordered on the E by the Baths of the Capitole. The house was laid out around a peristyle (V-VIII) (9x1.70 to1.80m) that enclosed a garden (IV) bounded by 8 columns. The large triclinium (XVIII), the oecus (XV) and the cubicula (IX, XVII) opened toward the garden...

House of Venus (Maison de Venus)

The house of Venus is located at the S of the capitol and is adjacent to the temple of Caracalla’s victory. The house is laid out on two levels (Plan view, Fig. 1). The peristyle garden and the main reception rooms are located on the higher level. A large rectangular pool (V, 2.80x5.45m.) filled mo...

Kitchen and Commercial Gardens

The inscriptions of the sanctuary of Apollo mention nearly 30 kepoi within the period of 433 B.C. to 156/155 B.C., which were either private or belonged to Apollo and were rented or leased. Most of these cannot be localized because they were named after their former owners and with topographical re...

Perfumery (Quarter of the Stadium, Insula I, Building B)

In the Late Hellenistic houses of Delos the impluvia of peristyle courtyards were usually paved, and rainwater falling into these courtyards was emptied as wastewater by sewers into nearby streets. However, in two large houses (Quarter of the Theater, Insula II, Houses E and F) and two clubhouses o...

Peristyle Gardens in the Quarter of the Theater

In the Late Hellenistic houses of Delos the impluvia of peristyle courtyards were usually paved, and rainwater falling into these courtyards was emptied as wastewater by sewers into nearby streets. However, in two large houses (Quarter of the Theater, Insula II, Houses E and F) and two clubhouses o...

Petra Garden and Pool Complex

The only example of a garden investigated using specialized garden archaeology techniques in the region of Arabia Petraea is found at Petra. A large open area was believed to be the site of a marketplace, the so-called “Lower Market,” until excavations revealed the remnants of a formal garden and p...

Sanctuary B, the templa Concordiae

Sanctuary B, the templa Concordiae (117-138 CE), is a monument from the time of Hadrian dedicated to several deities, four of whom are known from the texts: Concordia, Frugifer, Liber Pater and Neptune (Figure 7). The complex is distinguished from the other cult complexes of the city by the integra...

Shrine Complex in Insula E125

A few decades after a Nabataean shrine (Fig. 2) at Hauarra had been severely damaged during the Roman conquest of Arabia Petraea, the site’s inhabitants built another shrine at the same location. The Roman-period shrine occupied the southeast corner of a multi-unit insula (E125), but could only be ...

Temple of Baalat (Temple de Balaat)

Only the central passage (III) way leading to the temple (IV) was paved. The rest of the courtyard (II), which was enclosed by a portico (I), was probably planted as in temple E (Plan view, Fig.1). Maps Plans Fig. 1: Plan of the Temple of Baalat (CMT, V. II, fasc.2, plan 10.) Dates unspecified ...

Temple of Caelestis (Temple de Caelestis)

The marble causeway leading to the temple was bordered on each side with soil that was probably planted as in temple E (Plan view, Fig. 1). Maps Plans Fig. 1: Plan of the Temple of Caelestis (CMT, V. II, fasc.2, plan 9) Dates unspecified Bibliography Ben Abed-Ben Khader, A., Corpus des Mosaïqu...

The anonymous sanctuary, Dar Lachheb

The anonymous sanctuary, called Dar Lachheb (184-187 CE), located about fifty meters below the forum, is of African type. In line with the entrance to the complex, a large cella with an apse opens onto the northern gallery of the triplex porticus that frames the courtyard. The courtyard consists of...

The sanctuary of Caelestis

The sanctuary of Caelestis, installed on the north-western outskirts of the city, was built on a sizeable plot of land allocated to it by its commissioner during the reign of Severus Alexander (222-235). This sanctuary is distinguished by its semi-circular shape. Its Corinthian temple, peripteral a...

The sanctuary of Minerva 2

The sanctuary of Minerva 2, (138-161 CE), built later than the templa Concordiae, presents a very different configuration. The cella, projecting outwards from the courtyard lined with porticoes, is built on a very high podium whose summit corresponded to the level of the peribolus roof and to which...

The sanctuary of the Victories of Caracalla

The sanctuary of the Victories of Caracalla, situated in the southwest of the forum, was built in a residential area in 214 CE on a particularly cramped and steep site (figure 12). Its urban and topographical situation conditioned its architecture. It is accessed by a lateral staircase, built onto ...

Theater (Theâtre)

At the rear of the theater is a xystis known from the dedication inscription (CIL VIII 26606, 26608) (Plan view, Fig.1). The word xystis probably corresponds to the portico and the semi-circular garden space that develops behind the stage building. Maps Plans Fig.1 Plan of the Temple(Les ruines d...