Sanctuary of Zeus Philios



Province Description

Roman intervention in Greek political affairs resulted in conflicts that led to the destruction of Corinth in 146 B.C. and the sacking of Athens in 86 B.C. It was not until 27 B.C., however, that Augustus formally organized the Roman province of Achaea. Achaea consisted of the cities and territories of the southern Greek mainland between the Peloponnese and Thessaly, as well as Epirus in the northwest and the Ionian and some of the Aegean islands. The provincial capital was Corinth. Under Nero in the mid-1st century A.D. Epirus became a separate province, and in the mid-2nd century Thessaly was detached and added to the province of Macedonia. Under Roman domination many cities such as Athens, Sparta, Patras, and Corinth grew in size and prominence, the latter two partly owing to their importance as ports. After an initial decline in the number of rural sites in the early Empire, by the late Roman period the countryside was densely settled with farms and villas, due to changing landholding patterns and Roman improvements in agricultural and irrigation technology. The main exports from Achaea were wine, particularly from the northern Peloponnese, as well as olive oil and honey, linen and woollen textiles and marbles.


Megalopolis (Pleiades)


Sanctuary of Zeus Philios


Garden Description

Pausanias mentioned a small grove of trees in the sanctuary of Zeus Philios that was in close proximity to the agora in Megalopolis (8.31.4-5). The grove was enclosed within a boundary wall. In the precinct were images of the goddesses Demeter and Kore. This grove almost certainly had been in existence since pre-Roman times, but it still flourished in the 2nd century A.D. when Pausanias visited the site.


unspecified (still flourished in the 2nd century CE)

Pleiades ID





Maureen Carroll (ORCID: 0000-0001-9958-8032)

Publication date

21 Apr 2021