Judaea, the Roman province, included parts of the areas of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms, notably Biblical Judah, Samaria, and Edom. Its capital was Caesarea Maritima. Roman influence in the region began in 63 CE, when the Roman general Pompey the Great conquered Syria from Mithridates of Pontus, besieged Jerusalem, and captured the Second Temple; he appointed Hyrcanus, one of the two Hasmonean brothers fighting for kingship, as ethnarch of Judaea. Later, Julius Caesar appointed Antipater, the father of Herod, as Judaea's first Roman Procurator. Later these ties allowed Herod to seek backing from Rome against the Hasmoneans in 40 BCE, when the Senate recognized him as “king of the Jews.” His territories came to include the regions of Galilee, Gaulanitis (the Golan),Peraea and the Decapolis, and Augustus later granted him the coastal cities, Batanaea, Auranitis, and Trachonitis. Herod balanced his allegiance to Rome with the independence of his kingdom, often employing architectural projects to express his ambitions and control of nature to express his capacity to rule . His many palaces, placed strategically around the kingdom, feature dramatically designed landscapes and gardens. Upon his death, his son and heir Archelaus was unable to maintain order and the major part of Judaea was annexed to Syria in 6 CE, with its own prefect, while two other sons of Herod, Philip and Antipas, received territories as tetrarchs. By the time of Trajan, Judea was reduced in size and many of the Herodian palaces abandoned, preserving them over the millennia for archaeologists. Hadrian renamed the province After the Bar Kochba revolts (132-135)Hadrian renamed the province Syria Palaestina, erasing the name of Judaea.
The geography of Judaea comprises a wide variety of biomes, from richly watered plains of the Galilee and the Jordan, to the semi-arid Judean Hills, the humid, fertile coastal plain of the Mediterranean, and the deserts of the Dead Sea valley and the Negev. The period for which we have the richest evidence of a garden culture in this region is during the reign of Herod the Great. An allied king of Rome, Herod’s relationships with Mark Antony, Cleopatra, Augustus, and Marcus Agrippa and other officials ave been preserved in the texts of Flavius Josephus. These constitute a rare record of interactions between Rome and its territories, and provide a valuable context for understanding the trends of design in the early imperial period. The proximity of Judaea to Alexandria, whose palaces and gardens lie beneath the modern city and its harbors, may also provide a suggestion of the late Hellenistic garden culture that Romans emulated. Evidence of gardens in the Hasmonean winter palaces at Jericho and the palace identified as that of Hyracanus the Tobiad at 'Iraq al-Amir on the other side of the Jordan Valley provide rare cases where texts can illuminate archaeological evidence. These gardens require further investigation and both are threatened by local development.
In one of the most beautiful spots of the Eastern Mediterranean, five km west of Jericho, the biblical “city of Palms,” (Deut. 34:3) lie the remains of a royal complex of the late Second Temple Period (the end of the second century B.C. continuing through the mid-first century A.D). Despite their location in the desert some 200 m. below sea level (one of the lowest occupied elevations on earth) these palaces were set amidst an abundance of vegetation and enjoyed a copious supply of water brought from the surrounding hills via water channels. The palaces are dramatically situated along Wadi Qelt where the gorge opens abruptly onto the Jordan Valley floor. (Fig. 1) They were set amidst the large palm and balsam groves for which the valley was famed. Water channels give archaeological evidence of groves to the north of the palace, but literary evidence suggests that royal holdings from Jericho to Ein Gedi were extensive. None of the gardens have been fully excavated, but many have been examined and the presence of rich soil rather than pavement, as well as water channels and ceramic planting pots provide conclusive evidence for the many gardens discussed below.
Herodian Second Palace
The earthquake of 31 B.C. destroyed the Hasmonean palace complex, and the political changes that took place after Actium enabled Herod to gain full possession of the winter palaces. On top of the ruined palaces, he built a new complex (Fig 2). The two pools of the Pool Complex were unified to form a single, large pool (32 x 18m)! Gardens replaced the pavements around the pool, as evidenced by rows of ceramic planting pots found there (Fig. 3). On the western side of the pool (A (B) 2), two rows of planting pots ran parallel to the pool. the distance between each pot was about two and a half meters apart while on the eastern side of the pool (A (B) 3) the pots were spaced about one meter apart. Colonnades were built around the larger of these pools and a hall was built on the western side (F), probably meant for the swimmers. A long, narrow Roman-style bath house was built to the west of this pool.
The main unit of the second palace included two wings. The northern wing, was elevated 5 meters above the southern wing and was built around a fairly large peristyle courtyard (34 x 28), flanked by rooms on three sides. The courtyard itself had an unusual structure. Its plan features a regular peristyle but the level of the open courtyard is c. 1 m. higher than that of the floors of the surrounding colonnades (Fig 4). Anyone walking around the courtyard would have seen, and perhaps even smelled, the flowering shrubs directly in front of them. Adjusted to the raised Peristyle garden was a triclinium, ornamented with wall panels and incorporated a window with a view onto the garden. Southern to the triclinium was a colonnaded balcony that overlooked the lower wing of the palace and a dramatic view of Wadi Qelt. The low wing of the palace (Fig 2, AK) incorporated the two Hasmonean swimming pools (one 20 x 20 m. and 7 x 7 m). Colonnades were built around the larger of the pools and a hall was built on the western side, probably meant for the swimmers (Fig 5). A long, narrow Roman-style bath house was built to the west of this pool.
31 BCE - 4 BCE
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- K. Gleason, “Garden Excavations at the Herodian Winter Palace in Jericho, 1985-1987", Bulletin of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society, Vol. 7, 1987-8 Jstor
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- E. Netzer, The Hasmonean and Herodian Palaces at Jericho: Final Reports of the 1973-1987 Excavations, Vol. 1, Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2001 : 287-298 worldcat
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- J. Pritchard, “The Excavation at Herodian Jericho, 1951," The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 32-3 (1952-4): 56-58. worldcat
21 Apr 2021