Achaea

Agora of the Italians

The Agora of the Italians, with a size of some 6,000 square meters, is situated prominently in the center of Delos, between the famous sanctuary of Apollo to the south and the Sacred Lake to the north. The design of the Agora centers on a vast courtyard with four double-storied porticoes enclosing ...

Altar of the Twelve Gods

A grove of olive and laurel trees surrounding the Altar of the Twelve Gods in the Athenian Agora is mentioned in the late 1st century A.D. by the Roman writer Statius in his epic poem Thebaid (12.481-496). Excavations conducted there revealed the remains of the planting pits of trees, although ther...

Garden of Epicurus

In the 4th century B.C., the schools and gardens of the philosophers Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastos and Epicurus were built in the vicinity of the gymnasia in the suburbs of Athens. Like the gymnasia, these schools were held in especially high esteem by members of the wealthy, educated class of Rom...

Guest House 1

A Roman guest house of the 2nd century A.D., so-called Guest House I, was erected southeast of the Roman Kladeos baths of ca. 100 A.D. (Fig. 3, A on plan). The guest house had a peristyle courtyard with a water-filled channel surrounding a rectangular island. The island may have been planted as a g...

Guest House 2

In the first third of the 3rd century A.D. another guest house, so-called Guest House II (B on plan), was built at Olympia, immediately east of and connected with Guest House I (see Fig. 1). Guest House II was almost certainly built to supplement Guest House I after alterations to the latter result...

Gymnasia and Groves

The three most famous gymnasia in Athens, situated outside the city in naturally well-watered and shady sanctuaries of pre-Classical date, were those in the suburbs. In the Academy there was a shrine of the hero Hekademos; the Lykeion had a sanctuary of Apollo; and a cult site of Herakles was locat...

House of Fourni

In the Late Hellenistic houses of Delos the impluvia of peristyle courtyards were usually paved, and rainwater falling into these courtyards was emptied as wastewater by sewers into nearby streets. However, in two large houses (Quarter of the Theater, Insula II, Houses E and F) and two clubhouses o...

House of Nero

This house was built at the time of, and possibly for, the emperor Nero, who, on several occasions in the mid-1st century A.D., performed personally in the games at Olympia. To enable the construction of the building just south of the stadium, the earlier east baths were demolished. The house had a...

Kitchen and Commercial Gardens

The inscriptions of the sanctuary of Apollo mention nearly 30 kepoi within the period of 433 B.C. to 156/155 B.C., which were either private or belonged to Apollo and were rented or leased. Most of these cannot be localized because they were named after their former owners and with topographical re...

Leonidaion

This building southwest of the temple of Zeus was the largest guest house in the sanctuary at Olympia. The original Leonidaion, a gift of Leonidas from Naxos, was built shortly after 338 B.C. with a central courtyard. In the 2nd century A.D. the building was remodeled, and this courtyard was transf...

Library of Hadrian

The most monumental building dedicated to education and intellectual pursuits in Athens was the so-called Library of Hadrian (Fig. 1). It consisted of four columned halls with exedrae at regular intervals on the north and south sides, and a library room flanked by lecture halls on the east. In the ...

Neoplatonic School Near the Areopagus

Several houses with peristyle courtyards were built north of the Areopagus in the second half of the 4th century A.D. These have been interpreted as schools of the Neoplatonic philosophers in which the school directors lived and students were instructed. One of these buildings, the so-called House ...

Palace of the Giants

A large complex of the early 5th century A.D. in the southern part of the Agora on the site of the earlier Odeon of Agrippa generally has been interpreted as a late Roman gymnasion (“Gymnasion of the Giants”) (Fig. 1). Homer Thompson, however, proposed that the building might have been an official ...

Perfumery (Quarter of the Stadium, Insula I, Building B)

In the Late Hellenistic houses of Delos the impluvia of peristyle courtyards were usually paved, and rainwater falling into these courtyards was emptied as wastewater by sewers into nearby streets. However, in two large houses (Quarter of the Theater, Insula II, Houses E and F) and two clubhouses o...

Peristyle Gardens in the Quarter of the Theater

In the Late Hellenistic houses of Delos the impluvia of peristyle courtyards were usually paved, and rainwater falling into these courtyards was emptied as wastewater by sewers into nearby streets. However, in two large houses (Quarter of the Theater, Insula II, Houses E and F) and two clubhouses o...

Sanctuary of Apollo and the Nymphs

A grove and shrine of Apollo in the mountaintop town of Kyrtones in Boeotia was visited by Pausanias in the 2nd century A.D. (9.24.4). There was also a natural spring at the site, next to which was a sanctuary of the Nymphs and a small grove of fruit-bearing trees. Dates unspecified Pleiades ID 540...

Sanctuary of Artemis

The Greeks in Homer’s Iliad sacrificed to Artemis at Aulis in Boeotia in the hopes of favorable winds to carry them from Greek shores to Troy (Il. 2.305-310). The late 5th century Athenian playwright, Euripides, made reference to the grove of Artemis in his Iphigenia in Aulis (185-186, 1543-1549). ...

Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone

Pausanias gave directions on how to reach the grove called Pyraia, located near the city of Sikyon (2.11.3). He did not reveal what kind of trees grew here, but the grove was sacred to Demeter and Persephone. In it both men and women held religious festivals, but in separate locations. Statues of D...

Sanctuary of Ganymede or Hebe

The only indication that there was a garden at this sanctuary is a literary reference to a grove of cypress trees. According to Pausanias (2.13.3), this ancient sanctuary in the northeastern Peloponnese was located above the acropolis. The grove associated with the goddess Ganymede or Hebe was stil...

Sanctuary of Hyernetho

According to local legend, the Argive maiden, Hyrnetho, died in an ancestral struggle and was buried on this site (Pausanias, 2.28.6-7). The sanctuary lay in the midst of a grove of wild olive trees. Established law, even in Roman times, forbade anyone to remove broken branches of these olives or a...

Sanctuary of Poseidon

We know of a grove of trees in the precinct of the temple of Poseidon, thanks to Pausanias’ and Strabo’s descriptions of it in the early 1st and the later 2nd century A.D. (Strab. 8.6.22; Paus. 2.1.7). According to Pausanias, on one side of the precinct stood statues of athletes who had been victor...

Sanctuary of Poseidon Onchestios

According to Pausanias, the ancient city of Onchestos in Boeotia lay in ruins by the time he visited the site in the 2nd century A.D., but the shrine and statue of Poseidon Onchestios and the sacred grove survived (9.26.5). This, he says, was the grove that Homer praised in his poetry (Il. 2.506; s...

Sanctuary of Zeus

The extensive sanctuary at which Panhellenic athletic games took place, was situated on the Alpheus river in groves of trees of ancient date. In early Greek mythology, the semi-divine Herakles was said to have planted trees in the sacred precinct, called the Altis, at Olympia (Pindar, Olympian Odes...

Sanctuary of Zeus

The grove of trees at the temple of Zeus is known through Pausanias’ description of it (2.15.2) and from archaeological excavations in the temple precinct. Excavations in the 1970s uncovered 23 planting pits cut out of the living rock on the south side of the temple (Fig. 1, gray circles on plan). ...

Sanctuary of Zeus Philios

Pausanias mentioned a small grove of trees in the sanctuary of Zeus Philios that was in close proximity to the agora in Megalopolis (8.31.4-5). The grove was enclosed within a boundary wall. In the precinct were images of the goddesses Demeter and Kore. This grove almost certainly had been in exist...

Temple Grove

Evidence for a temple grove on Aegina exists only in a literary reference. Pausanias (2.29.6) wrote that the shrine of Aiakos was surrounded by a grove of olive trees. Pausanias says that it had been there since ancient times, and a reference in 464 B.C. to the grove in Pindar’s Olympian Odes (13.1...

Temple of Hephaistos

On the western edge of the Athenian Agora on Kolonos hill was the Temple of Hephaistos, built in the second half of the 5th century B.C. Excavations in 1937 around the temple revealed numerous square planting pits cut into the living rock in the 3rd century B.C. and again in the 1st century B.C. (F...

Tomb Garden and Cistern of Gallatis, Son of Pythion

An inscription found near Chaeronea and known only from a transcription records the dedication by Gallatis, the son of Pythion, probably some time during the first or second century, of a funerary monument to himself, his wife, his children, and whomever his children wish, “with the cistern and gar...

Urban Houses Near the Areopagus

Several Roman houses in Athens make use of the remains of Classical and Hellenistic buildings, and, as far as we can tell, these houses generally had courtyards paved with marble chips, pebbles or tile set in mortar, rather than with gardens. One house on the northwest slope of the Areopagus, howev...

Victory Monument of Augustus

The tropaeum of Nicopolis, a monument celebrating the naval victory of Octavian over the joint forces of Anthony and Cleopatra at Actium, is situated on the so-called Sacred Hill of Apollo north of the ancient city. On this hill, according to ancient sources, Octavian camped during the crucial days...

Villa of Herodes Atticus

A large (20,000 sq. m.) villa on a small hill near the ancient site of Eua has been systematically excavated since the 1980s. Most of the discoveries, however, remain unpublished. Because the earliest remains date to the Flavian period and an inscription mentions the name Hipparchus, father of Hero...