Italia

Subdivisions: Herculaneum, Ostia, Pompeii, Rome

562.Insula or. I.2-3(B)

B. From the atrium the peristyle on the lower level was reached by way of a steeply sloping corridor. Stuccoed brick columns and a low wall 0.50 m. high enclosed the central area (b) and a large gutter collected water from the edges and conducted it to the cistern. A rectangular pool ca. 2.60 x 5.0...

563.Insula or. I.2-3(C)

C. There are five rooms south of the peristyle and on a lower level beyond them is another garden (c). Plans Plan of the new excavations of Herculaneum (Maiuri, Herculaneum) Herculaneum - insula orientalis I. 1-3-c Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Dates Unspecified Bibliography Maiuri, Erco...

564.Insula or. I.2-3(D)

D. A rustic shrine was attached to the north side of the house and a long narrow garden (d) was located here. There was evidence of earlier construction at this location. Plans Plan of the new excavations of Herculaneum (Maiuri, Herculaneum) Herculaneum - insula orientalis I. 1-3-d Pleiades I...

Casa del Colonnato Tuscanico (VI.17/26)

This house with an L-shaped floor plan had a peristyle garden (a) at the juncture of the two wings enclosed by a seventeen column portico. The garden entrance facing the large room to the north had double columns, and the garden could be approached from the atrium or from the entrance off the stree...

Casa del Larario Fiorito (II.ix.4)

Excavated in the later 1980s, this property features a garden, described by Ciarallo as “laid out in eight ground strips bordered by furrows.” She interprets this layout as a plant nursery, also taking into account that the root cavities throughout were small, 4-8 c. in diameter, with two larger ca...

Casa del Rivievo di Telefo (Insula or. I.2-3)

A. The excavation of this house in 1934-1936 revealed an unusual atrium arrangement, which Maiuri states is the first time the architectural scheme that is used in a peristyle was stylishly applied to the atrium. The atrium had no fauces, there were three columns on both the north and south sides, ...

Casa del Salone Nero (VI.13/11)

Excavation of this garden (a) to the rear of this elegant house took place in the spring of 1939. The garden was completely surround by a portico which had eight columns and two pillars on the north side with engaged columns placed strategically so as to provide an unimpeded view from the tablinum....

Casa della Gemma (Insula or. I.1)

A. This garden (a) is built partially into the edge of the hill and partially on vaults. A square opening enclosed by a high wall in the center of the garden supplies light to the floor below, shared by both the Casa della Gemma with windows on three sides and the Casa del Rilievo di Telefo next do...

Casa di Galba (VII.2)

The excavation of this site was begun in 1873-1874 and is still incomplete. A silver bust, supposedly of the emperor Galba, found in the street in front of this house gave the site its name. Twelve stuccoed tufa columns support a portico which encloses this peristyle garden. A marble faced crucifor...

Divorum

The Divorum, also known as the Templum Divorum (Degrassi 13.1.103, 233) and the Porticus Divorum, was a porticus with two small temples built in honor of Titus and Vespasian by Domitian, who constructed the complex after the first of 80 CE on the site of the Villa Publica (Chronographer of 354 CE)....

Domus Augustana

LOWER PERISTYLE The lower peristyles of the Domus Augustana, the private area of the Flavian Palace, was sumptuously decorated with a large fountain in the shape of four peltae (semi-circular shields that were common motifs for gardens of the early imperial period), comparable to the arrangements a...

Domus Aurea

Famous for its innovative architecture, the Domus Aurea contained equally impressive gardens. After the fire of 64 CE, Nero erected this monumental residence, replacing the damaged Domus Transitoria. While the exact boundaries of the property are unknown, it is generally thought to have extended fr...

Domus Flavia, Upper Peristyle and Nymphaea

UPPER PERISTYLE AND NYMPHAEA The grandiose Palace that the architect Rabirius built for Domitian when garden art was at its apex made an enormous impression on his contemporaries, as one gathers from the praises heaped upon it by the writers of the time- in particular Statius and Martial. The latte...

Domus Tiberiana

The remains of this domus, on the western part of the Palatine, are now under the Renaissance Farnese gardens. The Domus Tiberiana is first mentioned after the death of Nero: Plutarch and Tacitus refer to it in the context of the turbulent events of 69 CE (Plut. Galba, 24.4; Tac. Hist. 1.27; Suet. ...

Garden beneath the House of the Fishes (Domus dei Pesci)

In the course of recent excavations in a room (a) of this house a probable garden area was uncovered (Fig. 1). Only its southern limits, represented by the perimeter wall of an otherwise unidentified building, could be traced. The archaeological sequence established by the stratigraphy of this gard...

Garden Houses (Case a Giardino)

The area in which these houses are situated was laid out as a residential area in c. 128 CE as part of the Hadrianic remodeling of Ostia (Fig. 1). It is delimited by buildings of various depths, due to the irregularity of the available space. The central area is occupied by two blocks each comprisi...

Garden of the Flavian Imperial Palace

During the period of Domitian (81-96 CE), a large artificial platform with massive substructures at the north, east and west was completed at the site of the Vigna Barberini. On this platform stood a large structure with a curvilinear plan at the south, and with colonnaded aisles on the east and we...

Gardens of the Temple of Elagabalus

The building of a religious complex, identified by scholars as the Elagabalium (Heliogablium), later dedicated to Jupiter (Iupiter Ultor), was the final transformation in antiquity of the northwestern terrace (Fig. 1). This enormous west-facing peripteral temple was enclosed by three porticoes on t...

Great Palestra (Insula or. II.4)

The Palaestra was crossed by Burbon tunnels in 1756-1760 and partially excavated from 1933 to 1954. Carbonized remains of large tree trunks found in the southwest corner and along the north side against the portico where they were swept by the volcanic flow indicated to Maiuri that the central area...

Hercules Musarum

The Aedes Hercules Musarum was located in the southern Campus Martius. It was enclosed by the Porticus Philippi (61 x 92 m.) in the late Republican period. Known from several fragments of the Severan Marble Plan (Forma Urbis Romae), it was also adjacent (to the northwest) to the Porticus Octaviae (...

House of Amor and Psyche

The entrance of this house (Fig. 1) (which takes its name from the statuary group found in room b) provides access to a large portico (a) with four columns on marble bases, resting on a continuous marble-paneled balustrade 50 cm high. To the right of the portico was an area believed to be a garden ...

House of Augustus

This important house, the Domus Augusti, which incorporated part of the earlier Domus of Quintus Hortensius (Vell. Pat. II.81 | Trans.), must have contained important gardens. Yet excavations carried out in the 1960s, although identifying remains as the house of the first [princeps]https://en.wikip...

House of the Bucrania

In the summer of 2002 part of the hortus of the Domus with peristyle was excavated (in the west corner) (Fig. 1, d). At 80 cm under the present sea level, part of the garden of a Late Republican domus (called Domus with Bucrania) was revealed. The domus was built about 80-60 BCE and destroyed about...

House of the Fortuna Annonaria

The peristyle garden (Fig. 1, a) has travertine columns on three sides. The fourth side coincides with the perimeter wall of the house, which forms part of the original plan, dating to the 2nd century CE. The last phase of the domus, lavishly decorated with precious marbles, dates to the 4th centur...

House of the Thunderbolt (Domus Fulminata)

The peristyle garden, excavated in 1941, was surrounded by a portico on all four sides, supported by brick columns, some of which were paired or clustered in threes (Fig. 1). In the original building, dating to the Flavian period, the garden (a) was furnished with a brick biclinium, with the klinai...

House on Via del Tempio Rotondo

This house was only partially excavated between June 1972 and January 1973 (Fig. 1). In its Augustan phase the peristyle garden (a) was adorned with a large central basin paved in opus signinum. At the center of the basin was a brick support, interpreted as the base of a fountain. The columns of th...

House with Peristyle

During the winter 1938-1939 part of an earlier building was found under the occupation level of the Schola of the Trajan. It was called House with peristyle, as the main preserved feature was seen to be the considerable part of a classical peristyle) (Fig. 1, b). The house was erected between 20-40...

I.2.10 House of L. Vousius Faustus and M. Volusius Faustus

The garden at the rear of the house, excavated in 1873, is almost totally destroyed. According to Mau, most of the garden was occupied by a large pool (5m X 2.90m) which was sloped toward the west from where it drained into the street through a pipe. The pool was surrounded by a low wall about 0.55...

I.2.15

This humble house was excavated in 1873. It had no garden but the impluvium was surrounded by a low masonry wall. The top contained a planting bed which served as a small garden. Bibliography Fiorelli, G. 1875. Descrizione di Pompei, p. 42 (worldcat) Jashemski, W.F. 1993, Gardens of Pompeii: Hercu...

I.2.16

This house was excavated in 1873. The entranceway led directly to the portico which enclosed the garden on the north and east. In the northwest corner of the portico a masonry aedicula lararium formed an arched niche on top of a solid podium. A low wall connected the columns and pillars of the port...

I.2.17

A. At the rear of the house was a very small garden entered from the tablinum. Excavated in 1872, much of the garden was occupied by two small raised pools, according to Mau. Attached to the west wall was a masonry pool 0.58 m deep on the inside and 0.73 m high on the outside. The other pool was to...

I.2.20 Caupona of Innulus

This small caupona had a garden at the rear with a roofed passageway on the east and the south. It was excavated in 1873 and a masonry biclinium (l. medius, 2.65m.; l. imus 2.94 m.) with a round table (dia. 0.93 m.) was uncovered in the northwest corner and a niche lararium on the north garden wall...

I.2.22

This caupona was excavated in 1873 but the reports offer insufficient details to determine if the open area had been planted. The room was entered directly from the street and the open area, had a portico on the north and east supported by one pillar. Fifteen amphorae with inscriptions were uncover...

I.2.24 Officina Libraria

The garden east of the atrium had a portico extending along the south and part of the west sides. A low wall (0.52m high) connected the columns and an entrance to the garden was located on the west. In 1873 the caupona was excavated. The garden contained a masonry triclinium (l. medius, 3.85m; l. s...

I.2.28 Casa Della Grata Metallica; Casa Dell’Atrio Tetra-Stilo

At the rear of the house there was a peristyle garden with a portico along the east side and part of the south. The excavation took place in 1873-74. A low wall joined three stuccoed brick columns and two engaged ones which supported the portico. There was an entrance to the garden on the south sid...

I.2.3

The small viridarium at the rear of the house had narrow, slightly raised beds along the walls on the north and east side. These beds were for the cultivation of flowers, according to Fiorelli. A small vestibule on the north side of the garden was decorated with remnants of tufa columns brought fro...

I.2.6

The west portico of the small peristyle garden at the rear of the house was entered through two doors directly from the atrium. The garden was enclosed on four sides by a portico supported by eight stuccoed brick columns. On the foreside, the two first columns on the left had a larger intercolumnia...

I.3.20/22

At the rear of this house there was a garden with a passageway on the north and the west. The garden had a gutter along the east, north, and west edges. Embedded in the garden were four large dolia. A large triclinium on the east side had a window that looked out into the garden. Fiorelli surmised ...

I.3.23 House of Actius Anicetus

This site was excavated in 1868 revealing a peristyle garden at the rear of the house. A portico on the east and north side was supported by five columns connected by a low wall. There was an opening to the garden on the north. The middle of the garden had two cistern puteals. The west wall of the ...

I.3.24 House of Capella

At the rear of the house, excavated in 1868, there was a peristyle garden with a portico supported by three brick columns on the east and north sides. The south wall had a lararium painting and a crude animal painting on one corner of the south garden wall. This had been executed in the manner of a...

I.3.25

A. This house had an irregular plan and a small peristyle garden enclosed on three sides by a low masonry wall. The wall was topped by four stuccoed brick columns which supported the portico. The excavation in 1869-72 showed that restoration was in progress at the time of the eruption. Inside the t...

I.3.3 House of Epidius Fortunatus

A. On the right of the tablinum were ten steps that led to the peristyle garden. A portico enclosed the garden on the west, north and east sides. This was supported by ten columns and two engaged columns which were stuccoed brick painted red. The north, east, and west edges of the garden had a gutt...

I.3.30

This small house, excavated in 1872, had no atrium and the peristyle garden was to the right of the north end of the entrance passageway. A portico enclosed the garden on the west, north, and part of the south sides. Part of the portico had been closed to make rooms. Paintings of amorini decorated ...

I.4.11 Caupona of Copious

This modest caupona had a garden at the rear that was raised one step higher than the rest of the building. It once had a masonry altar with a lararium painting above but both of these have been lost. A latrine was located at the southeast corner of the garden. Bibliography Boyce, G.K. 1937. Corpu...

I.4.2

This peristyle garden had two entrances on the west and the south. It was located at the rear of the tablinum and had a portico on the west and south enclosed by a low wall and supported by columns. At the west entrance there was a cistern. A large window that looked out into the garden located in ...

I.4.22

Directly to the rear of the atrium, a small viridarium with a paved space (1.70 x 2.50m) behind it suggested use as a summer triclinium to Fiorelli. Soprano was certain that there was an outdoor triclinium of wood or other material located here. Bibliography Fiorelli, G. 1860. Giornale degli scavi...

I.4.5/25 House of the Citharist

A. Excavation took place at this large house intermittently form 1853 to 1869. There were three large parallel, adjacent gardens. A portico, supported by seventeen stuccoed columns made of brick and Sarno limestone, enclosed the center garden. The columns were red, fluted at the top and plain at th...

I.4.9

This garden contains a cistern opening and form the entrance a viridarium at the rear of the tablinum and a niche lararium are clearly visible. Bibliography Boyce, G.K. 1937. Corpus of the Lararia of Pompeii, p. 24, no.30 (worldcat) Fiorelli, G. 1860. Giornale degli scavi di Pompei, p. 68 Fiorelli...

I.5.2 Officina Coriarioum of M. Vesonius Primus

A. This tannery was excavated in 1873-1874. The peristyle courtyard had a portico to the north and east supported by brick pillars which had been most likely been built when the original house was converted to a tannery. Against the west wall there was a masonry triclinium (l.medius 4.99 m.; l.summ...

I.5.3/16

This site had been destroyed in antiquity and probably had been a hospitium. Excavated in 1874, the remains of a watering trough for animals and a stable were uncovered. Often demolished sites were planted but it could not be determined if there was vegetation present at the time of the eruption. T...

I.6.13 House of Stallus Eros

At the rear of this house a masonry wall surrounded the small garden which was undergoing extensive repairs at the time of the eruption. A lararium niche was located on the east wall and the rear wall held remnants of a garden painting. This painting was evidently in poor condition at the time of t...

I.6.4 House of the Lararium; Casa del Larario; Sabello Iliaco

A small garden was located at the rear of the tablinum accessed by a passageway from the atrium. A small pool (0.70 m. deep) was centered in the garden enclosed by a crudely built double wall with a space in between for flowers. At the time of the eruption the house was undergoing extensive repairs...

I.6.7 Fullonica of Stephanus

This house had been converted to a fullery and the small peristyle garden to the rear probably served as a drying area. Five pillars of the portico were connected by a low, marble topped wall. This enclosed the raised garden on the east, north and west sides with a deep gutter running around the ga...

I.6.8-9

This modest house had rooms opening off the small peristyle garden at the rear of the structure. The rooms had been remodeled to serve as a shop and at the time of the eruption, were in disrepair. Four columns, two of tufa, two of brick, supported the peristyle portico on the north and east sides a...

I.7.1 House of P. Paquius Proculus; House of C. Cuspius Pansa

This elegant house was excavated in 1923. To the rear was a large and sunny peristyl garden with a portico on four sides supported by sixteen columns. At the northeast corner stood a lava puteal with a gutter that ran around the edges of the garden. In the center of the garden a wooden triclinium w...

I.7.15-17 Shop-House

The shop-house was laid out in a very irregular manner and the garden took up most of the space. There was a masonry triclinium in the southern part of the garden. This had a lectus imus and a lectus summus that both were 3.80 m. in length and the lectus medius was 4.24 m. in length. The rectangula...

I.7.18 Shop-House

Two paintings were found on the west wall of the atrium behind this shop, one was of a porticus villa on the sea and the second was a garden representation (o.16 x 0.43 m.). The garden was surrounded by a lattice fence which was drawn wider in the front than the rear and had a rectangular pool in f...

I.7.2-3 House of M. Fabius Amandio; House of P. Cornelius Cornthus

A very small garden was located in the light well at the rear of the atrium. The small raised garden (about 0.50 m. high) had a tiny semicircular pool fed by roof water. Three marble bases (0.16 x 0.21 m.) were most likely place at the edge of the pool. A garden painting adorned the wall behind poo...

I.7.7 House of the Priest Amandus

One step above the level of the triclinium of this small house with an irregular floor plan was a peristyle garden. It was to the west of the atrium and enclosed on the north and east by a portico. Five columns supported the portico and two engaged columns on the west wall continued the order of th...

II.2.4 House of Messius Ampliatus

A. The portico which bordered the peristyle garden on the north and east side was accessed from the entrance hall. This site had been extensively damaged prior to excavation. B. The east portico gave access to the narrow garden to the back of the house. Bibliography Jashemski, W.F. 1979. ‘The Gar...

II.3.4-6

A. A small garden at the rear of this connected house and caupona may have originally contained the two small statuettes found at this site in 1953. The two pieces were a headless ithyphallic tufa statuette (0.33 m. high with base; Pompeii inv. no. 10017) and a marble statuette of Venus (0.51 m. hi...

II.3.7/9

This garden restaurant was strategically located across from the Palaestra. This garden occupied most of the southern part of this insula and had a masonry triclinium (l. medius, 4.90 m; l. imus and summus 4.50m), as well as a round table (1.00 m in diameter) and a square table (0.90m x 0.90m). Dat...

II.4 Estate of Julia Felix; Praedia di Giulia Felice

Three separate gardens were located in this property. A. Garden A (entrance 9) occupies the entire insula and is one of the largest properties in the city. It was originally excavated in 1755-1757, stripped of its works of art and re-buried. In 1951-1952, this garden was re-excavated and restored b...

II.5 Large Vineyard

Located north of the amphitheater, this site was initially identified as the Foro Boario or Cattle Market. A small amount of excavation was started in 1755, but in 1814 the entrance and south wall were excavated. Most of the excavation was completed in the 1950s, except the northeastern section. In...

II.6 The Great Palaestra

Colonnaded porticoes encircled the palaestra on the south, west and north. A large swimming pool (34.55 m x 22.25 m) was located in the center. Casts made of tree cavities planted eight meters apart in two rows around the north, west and south sides of the enclosed area indicated that these were pl...

II.6.7 Park Area adjacent to the Great Palaestra and the Amphitheater

Park-like areas were located between the Great Palaestra and the Amphitheater and to the north. Here booths were set up under trees or awnings and a carnival atmosphere existed as depicted in a painting found in the peristyle of house I.iii.23 (Mus. Naz. inv. no. 112 222). Two huge root cavities we...

II.8.1

Jashemski examined this sizeable garden to the rear of this property in 1957 and concluded that the pronounced north-south furrows bordered by water channels indicated that this was most likely a vegetable garden. An oven against the south wall of the entrance room, and a bowl in the garden, sugges...

II.8.2-3

Customers at this thermopolium were served at a counter looking onto the street and at the masonry triclinium (l. medius, 3.60 m.; l. imus 2.85; l. summus 2.30 m.) in the rear garden. This was located against the north wall to the front of this long, narrow garden and had a round table (0.50 m. in ...

II.8.5

A. A very small bath was located at the left rear of the atrium in this unusual building. Behind this was a tiny garden with three small triclinia on either side. The couches of these six triclinia were so low and narrow they must have been used as seats similar to the tabernae attached to the hous...

II.8.6 House of the Garden of Hercules

A large aedicula lararium on the east wall and a large triclinium (l. medius, 4.40 m.; l. imus 4.00; l. summus 3.80 m.; table between couches 1.00 x 1.67m.) were found in the large area attached to this humble house when excavation was started in 1953-1954. Human remains were uncovered with five go...

II.9.6-7 House of Summer Triclinium

A. To the west of the Great Palaestra there was a large garden which was partially excavated in 1954-1956. A low masonry wall with planting spaces in the top enclosed an elaborate masonry triclinium (l. medius, 4.45 m.; l. imus 4.20; l. summus 3.55 m.) with a table 0.65 x 0.75 m.) on the south, wes...

II.i.12 (House of the Birii; House of the Sibyl)

The worship of the Thracian-Phrygian vegetation god, Sabazius, took place in this large peristyles (Roman courtyards) garden which was entered through a wide vestibule from the street. Crude paintings of Venus, Mercury, Bacchus, and Priapus with their accompanying symbols were located high on the s...

II.i.2 (House of Aemilius Primio and Aemiluis Saturninus)

Behind the shop, living quarters were located, including a garden to the rear. The west garden wall was topped with the broken amphorae]; this wall was shared with the rear open area in I.i.1. Bibliography W. F. Jashemski, 1993, Gardens of Pompeii: Herculaneum and the villas destroyed by Vesuvius. ...

II.i.3-7

The garden in the southeast section of this area was shared the house at entrance 3 and shops 4, 5, and 6 on the Via dell’Abbondanza. It was also possible to enter the garden from the side street at entrance 7. Jashemski established in 1975 that the area had been planted due to the presence of scat...

II.i.7A/11

A. (Entrance 7A) A square garden area was tucked behind two rooms. The beginnings of an arc-shaped structure in the northeast corner could have been the beginning of an additional cistern according to Dr. De Caro. The soil was badly damaged and Jashemski could not determine the planting patterns, a...

II.i.7B/8-9

A. The access to this garden featured an arched niche high on the garden wall located either side of the direct entrance from the street at entrance 8. A further entrance (7A) from the street was located on the east wall. The masonry triclinium (l. medius, 3.60 m.; l. imus 3.20 l. summus 2.43 m.) i...

II.ii.2 (House of D. Octavius Quartio)

A. The spacious Tuscan atrium of this luxurious house excavated in 1918-1921 was a lavish garden. A low, double masonry wall, faced with marble on the outside, bordered the impluvium and according to Spinazzola, the space between the walls had been lined with wood to form a planting box for flowers...

II.ii.4

A. The portico which bordered the peristyle garden on the north and east side, and was accessed from the entrance hall. This site had been extensively damaged prior to excavation. B. The east portico gave access to the narrow garden to the back of the house. Bibliography W. F. Jashemski, 1993, Gard...

Insula dei Dipinti

The large open area in this insula, divided into two by a wall, was identified as a garden at the time of excavation (1914 to 1919), but on little evidence apart from the absence of paving over most of the area. Recent excavations have however clarified the phases of the garden and added some signi...

Insula or. I.1

B. The front of this house has an L-shaped terrace (b) which provided a passageway between the kitchen and the triclinium that opened onto the long loggia (c) with a spectacular view of the Bay. The terrace could have been decorated with potted plants. A gutter on the edges of the terrace, exceptin...

Insula or. II

Directly south of the Great Palaestra there is a peristyle garden (a) enclosed by a portico. A pool with a low wall surrounding it is located in the center of this garden. Plans Plan of the new excavations of Herculaneum (Maiuri, Herculaneum) Herculaneum - Garden (a) south of the Great Palaestr...

Mausoleum Augusti

The Mausoleum of Augustus was located in the northern Campus Martius between the Via Flaminia and the Tiber. The exact bounds of the park are unknown, but they stretched from north of the Mausoleum of Augustus to south of the Horologium and the Ara Pacis, which was located along the Via Flaminia. M...

Neronian Palace

In the Neronian period the architecture and the size of gardens changed substantially, as did the building criteria and urban organization of the city. With Nero, the Romans feared for the first time that Rome could become a single, grandiose residence. Suetonius informs that Nero, “having built fo...

Park Area Adjacent to the Great Palaestra and the Amphitheater

Park-like areas were located between the Great Palaestra and the Amphitheater and to the north. Here booths were set up under trees or awnings and a carnival atmosphere existed as depicted in a painting (Mus. Naz. inv. no. 112 222) found in the peristyle of house I.3.23. Two huge root cavities were...

Peristyle garden in house of Messius Ampliatus (II.ii.4)

Dates Unspecified Bibliography Della, Corte M, Case Ed Abitanti Di Pompei, Pompei-scavi: M. Della Corte, 1954. Print. worldcat Jashemski, Wilhelmina F, ‘The Garden of Hercules at Pompeii’ (II.viii.6): The Discovery of a Commercial Flower Garden.,American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 83, no. 4, ...

Piazzale della Corporazioni

In the original plan of the Augustan period the garden area to the back of the theater was surrounded on three sides by a roofed corridor opening onto the Tiber on the northern side with a monumental entrance. In the Claudian period the whole level of the area was raised and a portico consisting of...

Porticus Liviae

Located on the Oppian hill between the Clivus Suburanus and the later Baths of Trajan (Thermae Traiani) in the Subura, the Porticus Liviae is represented on three fragments of the Severan Marble Plan (FUR). The public porticus was constructed on the site of the grand Domus of Publius Vedius Pollio,...

Porticus of Pompey

Completed in 55 BCE on the Campus Martius, the Porticus Pompeianae, or Porticus of Pompey, was Rome’s first public park (Plin. HN 37.6.13; Propertius 2.32.11 | Trans.; Vitruvius De Arch. 5.9.1). Funded by the eastern victories of the general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, the Porticus comprised a double n...

Sacred Area Outside the South Walls

The southern edge of town was against a sharp drop to the sea. A terrace located on this drop held two shrines (a) and (b) and a series of rooms for cult activities. All of these faced on a long garden (c) 6.85 x 22.60 m. where the fragments of two large marble fountain basins were found when this ...

Schola of Trajan

The monumental complex of the Schola of the Trajan, presumed headquarters of the corporation of the marine carpenters, was built c.160-200 and abandoned after the 4th century CE. It was excavated and restored during the winter of 1938-1939. It includes a vast internal courtyard, which is oblong and...

The Garden of the Julio-Claudian Domus

At the end of the Republican era and the beginning of the Empire, residential dwellings occupied, at least in part, the northeastern corner of the Palatine. Two distinct excavation areas have revealed the partial remains of one or more domus in the southern part of the terrace, some 6.5 meters belo...

The Late Republican Domus

In the Republican period, by the 1st century BCE, the Palatine Hill had small but numerous gardens associated with the well-appointed houses (domus) situated upon it. Among these numerous residences were those of L. Lucius Crassus, famous for its six majestic nettle-trees (Celtis australis) (Plin. ...

The Palatine 'Stadium'

An important garden area in the Flavian Palace was the so-called “Stadium”, actually a hippodromus, as late authors in fact called it. This term, which is often used with regard to major villas, usually indicates an elongated rectangular space marked by a wide annular avenue, lesser ave...

The Severan Complex

The most visible remains from this period are a massive series of substructure arcades along the slope of the Palatine overlooking the Circus Maximus. It had been considered that this area was a thermae, a bath complex, from the time of Septimius Severus, but recent excavations and studies have sho...

Thermae Agrippae

Knowledge of this thermae, or bathing complex, and its associated public gardens comes from textual evidence and the Severan Marble Plan (FUR) (Figs. 1–2). Located in the central Campus Martius, Agrippa’s thermae, the Thermae Agrippae, were associated with his horti; upon his death in 12 BCE, he le...

Vigna Barberini

The artificial terrace that now carries the Barberini family name is located on the northeastern corner of the Palatine, beyond the visible remains of the Flavian Imperial palace (Fig. 1). Excavations carried out during the 1930s by A. Bartoli, and in the 1950s by G.F. Carettoni concentrated primar...

VIII.2.1. House of Championnet I

This house was excavated in 1799 and to the rear of the tablinium there was a portico which enclosed an area surrounded by a gutter. Openings were cut in the floor where the twelve supporting columns stood to allow light into the rooms below in the volcanic ledge. Mazois and Fiorelli labeled this a...

VIII.2.13.

The room (b) to the east had a good view into this garden (a) which was located to the rear of the tablinium. A column supported portico bordered the garden on the east and south. Plans Plan of the Pompeii Region VIII, Insula II Plan of the Pompeii Region VIII, Insula II, 1-20 Pleiades ID 432...

VIII.2.14/16.

A. The volcanic ledge that this peristyle garden (a) was built on dictated an irregular shape to the portico that enclosed it. The portico had fourteen columns and a rectangular pool in the south-east corner. The west wall of the pool had fourteen small amphoras (30 cm. long; mouth 9.5 cm. wide) ar...

VIII.2.18-20.

A. The Sarno Bath is included in this block of irregular shaped houses, reached by entrance 17 on the Via della Scuole that goes to the lower levels. On the street level there was a small peristyle garden (a) located in the center of the house. Two pillars supported a portico on three sides of the ...

VIII.2.29-30.

There was a narrow portico on the eastern lower level of this double house 2.20 m. wide with columns connected by a wooden fence. Several steps lower the construction of a supporting wall on the lava ledge allowed room for a small garden (a) with a pool in the center. The house on the west had a te...

VIII.2.3. House of Championnet II

This house, very similar to VII.ii.1, was also excavated in 1799. This peristyle garden had fourteen columns and was more rectangular. There was a terrace to the rear and a small room off the northwest corner of the peristyle which Mazois and Fiorello have labeled a sacrarium. Plans Plan of the Po...

VIII.2.34.

A colonnaded portico stood at the edge of the terrace (a) on the street level of this house. Below it was another terrace enclosed by a low wall. Sogliano and Mau disagree as to whether the wall contained a space for plants as only a part on the east remained. This was plastered and painted with a ...

VIII.2.36/37.

This house was excavated in 1885. The entrance at 37 went into the atrium and beyond that, up two steps, was the peristyle with a portico on three sides supported by stuccoed columns, only three of which have remained to date. The first intercolumniation on the north-east was filled with a wall. A ...

VIII.2.39. House of Emperor Joseph II

This was the last of the houses to be built on the Via della Regina, all of which were built over the south wall of the city. Located directly west of the Triangular Forum, it was excavated in 1767-1769, filled in, and then re-excavated in 1885-1886. A triclinium (b) and (b΄) flanked either side of...

VIII.3.14. House of Queen Carolina; House of Adonis

A large aedicula shrine was built against the rear wall of this long garden (a) directly across from the north side of the atrium, which was entirely open to this view. The shrine stood on a podium 2.00 x 2.15 m.; 0.80 m. high with four steps in front and a marble herm on either side. Two little br...

VIII.3.15. Caupona

This caupona had originally been part of a house according to Fiorelli. The unusual building had a garden (a) in the northeast corner that occupied over one quarter of the house and contained a masonry stibadium, (3.50 m. at the widest dimension), perhaps the only one in Pompeii. A monopodium suppo...

VIII.3.18/16-17. House of Diana

When this house was excavated in 1826, Fiorelli determined that after the earthquake it had been divided into two separated residences. The southeast corner was the location of a garden (a) that had a portico on three sides with columns connected by a low wall and pilasters on the south wall. Plans...

VIII.3.21.

This small house had a roofed passageway supported by one column that bordered the garden (a) on the south and east. A low masonry wall enclosed the garden on these same sides and the north wall had a small arched niche with an aedicula façade. Plans Plan of Region VIII Insula III Pleiades ID 43...

VIII.3.24.

A. The earthquake destroyed an elegant house on this site and this house was subsequently rebuilt on the ruins. A long fauces terminated in the garden (a) which was bounded on the north and part of the east and west sides by a portico. A low wall connected the supporting columns with an entrance on...

VIII.3.27.

From the street, the fauces led to the entrance to the garden (a) which was enclosed on the south and west by a portico with five columns and two engaged columns, all connected by a low wall. The original excavation plan shows a water channel on the south and west edges. Plans Plan of Region VIII ...

VIII.3.31. Case di Pan

This house, excavated in 1829-1830, had a peristyle garden (a) on the south side of the property, to the right of the atrium. A portico on the north and part of the south sides had seven columns, one of which was engaged. Plans Plan of Region VIII Insula III Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Exc...

VIII.3.4. House of Hercules and Auge; House of the Popidii

A. Past the tablinium of this house there was a garden (a) with a portico on the north and most of the west side. B. The garden (a) had an entrance to this area (b) which was planted after having been cleared of old structures. Plans Plan of Region VIII Insula III Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 70318...

VIII.4.12-13. Shop-House

These two shops, excavated in 1861, shared a house and a garden (a) to the back. A portico enclosed the garden on all four sides. In the southwest corner of the garden there was a masonry pool with a small water jet column in the center. A bronze basin 0.40 m. dia. with a miniature bronze lion fitt...

VIII.4.15. House of C. Cornelius Rufus; House of C. Cornelius Adiutor

Eighteen partially fluted columns supported the large portico (a) surrounding this spacious peristyle garden. Excavated in 1861, the garden was located at the rear of the tablinum and could be viewed from the large triclinium on the east or the exedra on the west. A wooden fence had enclosed the ga...

VIII.4.26-29. Bakery and House of Felix

Directly across from the Temple of Isis was an entryway to this garden (a) which was located to the rear of the house. On the east there was a portico with two columns and high up on the north wall there was an arched niche. Plans Plan of Region VIII Insula IV Images Fig.14, 14.22.59 (Stanley J...

VIII.4.30.

This tiny house with the small atrium and adjacent rooms had formerly been a porticoed garden, part of house 15 according to Fiorelli. Plans Plan of Region VIII Insula IV Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Excavation Dates Unspecified Bibliography Fiorelli, Gli scavi di Pompei dal 1861 al 1872, ...

VIII.4.33.

This garden (a) was tucked around the right end of a long fauces which led from the street. The garden was enclosed by a low wall and a gutter on the north and west and a narrow portico with one column on the north. A cistern opening was built into the wall on the west. Two marble heads 0.16 m. hig...

VIII.4.9. House of T. Mescinius Gelo

What was formerly a garden with a pool was converted into a large open area (a) by the demolition of some walls to the rear of the tablinium. Significant remnants of woolen and linen cloth were recovered from the area when it was excavated in 1860-1861 and this led Fiorelli to believe that the Stab...

VIII.5.15-16/18.

A. Over half the depth of the insula was crossed by a long angiportus which led from the Via dell’Abbondonza to an open area (a) past a wide portico. This extensive area was most likely used as a garden having a water basin in the southwest corner for irrigation. The first two columns in the portic...

VIII.5.2. Casa del Gallo; House of the Cock

At the time of the eruption this peristyle garden (a) was in the process of renovation. Located behind the tablinium, the white fluted columns on the east and north were still standing, however, all of the columns on the west and two of the south columns had been demolished. There was a rectangular...

VIII.5.20/17. Caupona

Entry no. 17 from the angioportus offered a second access to this garden at the rear of the caupona. The rear wall was decorated with a rough painting of Silenus reclining in vegetation pouring out wine from a wineskin. Plans Plan of Region VIII, Insula V Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Excava...

VIII.5.24. Casa del Medico

The famous painting “Judgment of Solomon” (0.45 x 1.55m.; Mus. Naz. inv. no. 113 197; Ruesch no. 1343) was found in this garden (a) on the low wall that connected the four columns and one pillar of the portico. This small garden was located to the right of the atrium and the enclosing portico stood...

VIII.5.28. Casa della Calce; Casa dell’Imperatore Francesco II

Three wide doorways led from the atrium of this house, which did not have a tablinium, to the peristyle of this large garden (a). Nine fluted columns supported the portico which bordered the garden on the east, north and part of the west with a gutter on these same sides. Holes in the columns 0.97 ...

VIII.5.37. Casa delle Pareti Rosse; House of the Fabii

This house was excavated in 1882 to reveal a small garden (a) at the rear entered by passageways on either side of the tablinium. The portico on the east had one column and two engaged columns with a low wall that allowed entrance on the south end. Rooms on the west probably had a roof that extende...

VIII.5.39. House of Acceptus and Euhodia

A. This house was excavated in 1882 to reveal a small garden (a) at the rear entered by passageways on either side of the tablinium. The portico on the east had one column and two engaged columns with a low wall that allowed entrance on the south end. Rooms on the west probably had a roof that exte...

VIII.5.9.

At the rear of the tablinium excavated in 1881 a narrow garden (a) had a portico on the north supported by one pilaster, one engaged column and five stuccoed free-standing columns. The east end of the garden became very narrow with a jut in the back wall and a small, square water basin was built he...

VIII.6.2/7. (no. 12 at Pompeii)

At the time of the eruption this site (a) was under construction. A portico was being built on the south and west sides using brick-shaped tufa columns and three old tufa columns. The columns on the south were salvaged from an earlier building. This was a large area, the intended use not clear. It ...

VIII.6.3. (no. 14 at Pompeii)

Only the bases remain of the fourteen brick columns that enclosed this garden (a). The area to the back of this house had been cleared of the wreckage of the earthquake, and the house to the west was in an earlier stage of recovery, to the point where not even the entrance could be determined. Plan...

VIII.6.4-5. Market Garden

After the earthquake the eastern part of this insula had been converted into a market garden. When it was excavated in 1883-1884 some of the soil contours remained. A basin in the northwest corner collected water that was diverted from the street. Gardening tools were found in this garden and the r...

VIII.6.9-10/1. House and Bakery

The atrium at the front of this house had been converted into a bakery. Towards the back a portico surrounded a small area (a). The portico columns were black at the base and red above, three on the north and three on the south and were connected by a low wall 0.47 m. high, but only the bases survi...

VIII.7.1. Caupona

This caupona, excavated in 1874, had a garden (a) across the back with a low wall on the east and a gutter that ran beside it, most of this covered by a roofed passageway. The northwest corner had a shallow pool, 1.87 x 0.55 m. from which water drained to a into a round basin 0.50 m. dia. on the so...

VIII.7.10. Shop-House

Behind shop no. 10 and the accompanying living quarters was a garden (a) enclosed by a low wall on the east with an entrance on the north end. The excavations in 1906 uncovered a triclinium (l. medius, 4.60 m.; l. imus and l. summus 3.20 m.) attached to the south wall with painted plaster decoratin...

VIII.7.11.

Behind this shop and the rooms beyond that there was a garden (a). Plans Fig.23, Plan of Region VIII, Insula VII Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Excavation Dates Unspecified Bibliography Jashemski, Gardens, vol. II, p. 222 (worldcat) Viola, Gli scavi di Pompei dal 1873 al 1878. In Pompei e la...

VIII.7.12.

The rear of this shop-house had a garden (a), perhaps with rooms overhead supported by columns in the garden according to Fiorelli. Plans Fig.23, Plan of Region VIII, Insula VII Pleiades ID 432873 TGN ID 7031897 Excavation Dates Unspecified Bibliography Fiorelli, Descrizione di Pompei, pp. 349-...

VIII.7.16. Gladiatorial Barracks; Ludus Gladiatorius; Schola Gladiatoria

A public garden laid out to the specifications of Vitruvius originally occupied the area at the rear of the Great Theater. There was a seventy four column portico enclosing an area with green plots of trees and shrubs and pathways for promenades. In the later years of the city the colonnade was con...

VIII.7.24.

The rooms adjoining the atrium of this house, excavated in 1795-1798, had been converted to a sculptor’s workshop. To the left of the atrium and up fifteen steps was a garden (a) with a surrounding portico and a fountain in the center. The triclinium to the north offered a view of the garden and th...

VIII.7.26-27.

Beyond shop 26 and the living quarters behind it there was a very large garden (a) that was entered directly from the atrium through the portico that stood at the north side of the garden. The garden could also be reached by the long, narrow angiportus located at the rear of the east portico of the...

VIII.7.28. Temple of Isis

This temple site was excavated in 1764-1766 and although, as Jashemski points out, it was likely that there was a sacred garden surrounding it, she could find no evidence of plantings remaining when she examined it. Ceremonies in a garden in front of a temple of Isis were depicted in two paintings ...

VIII.7.30. The Triangular Forum

The Doric Temple in the Triangular Forum was excavated between 1767 and 1797. A superlative view from the colonnade at the edge of the cliff looked across the Bay and a marble fountain basin supported by a fluted marble base stood in front of a middle column of the north portico catching water that...

VIII.7.6.

The extremely long entranceway from the street led all the way to the back of the house into the garden (a) which was excavated in 1906. A portico bordered the garden on the east with four columns, white on top and black on the bottom, connected with a low wall with an entrance on the north end. (F...